|Airport Support Vehicles
|Heathrow set to try electric vehicles
By: Fleet News
|Filed Under: Airport Support Vehicles -
This week sees the launch of a new trial of electric vehicles at Heathrow to test the viability of electric power-trains used in the highly demanding context of daily airport operations.
Over the next month, a fleet of EVs including the Nissan LEAF, Peugeot iOn, Vauxhall Ampera and the Renault Kangoo Z.E. will be trialled by four organisations and operators at Heathrow.
In addition to Heathrow Airport Limited, who support a potential switch to zero-emission ground based vehicles, British Airways, LSG SkyChefs and Gate Gourmet will be using the electric vehicles within their normal fleet to better understand the suitability or otherwise of EVs for their operations.
Following a detailed assessment of vehicles technologies last year, STS, who manage the Heathrow Clean Vehicles Partnership (CVP) and who are coordinating the new EV trials, have recommended greater use of EVs at Heathrow; not only as a way to reduce life cycle CO2 emissions, but also as part of the NOx emissions reduction strategy across the airport.
As noted by STS director Dr Ben Lane: “Given the current availability of high quality EVs, and need to reduce ground based vehicle emissions, STS are recommending an increase in the use of electric vehicles at Heathrow. In addition to the fleet of almost 700 electric baggage tugs already in use, we see considerable potential for other electric ground support equipment (such as cargo loaders and pushback tractors), as well as the latest on-road electric cars and vans now available in the UK.”
David Vowles, air quality and noise policy manager at Heathrow Airport Limited said: “Ten per cent of airside vehicles are already electric. The Clean Vehicle Partnership facilitates collaborative working amongst Heathrow fleet operators as well as providing advice, guidance and training to reduce emissions. This trial gives fleet operators more experience of using electric vehicles and the opportunity to test their suitability for both airside use and on the road.”
Renaults’ head of Electric Vehicle Programme at Renault UK Andy Heiron also commented: “We were keen to work with CVP members to accelerate the uptake of low emission vehicles and practices for ground use at Heathrow. The EV trial will allows vehicle operators on the airport to experience and better understand the capabilities of Kangoo van ZE in this environment. With around 600 ‘conventional’ Kangoo vans already in service at Heathrow we know this van is well adapted to airport use and are confident that this trial will demonstrate that the ZE version is ideal for the type of duty cycle most operators demand.”
Initial results from the Heathrow EV trials will be presented at the next CVP seminar on 6th December 2012. Information about the trials will also be available on the CVP website.
ATV | Utility Vehicle | Hunting Buggy
|Stealth Manufacturing - OUT OF BUSINESS
By: D&D Motor Systems & Internet Forum
|Filed Under: ATV | Utility Vehicle | Hunting Buggy -
According to Dealer News (www.dealernews.com) Stealth Manufacturing, who build many different stealth electric vehicles over the last 6 years, too include stealth nighthawk and stealth apache, is finished. In an article published on March 12, reporter Holly Wagner reports that Stealth Electric CEO Greg Block had confirmed that the company has gone out of business.
After speaking with the Assignee for the Company, Katie Goodman of Asset Recovery Associates, she told me that stealth 4x4 had two vanloads of assets. She promised to get me a list of those assets within the next week. There is a manufacturer based out of Oregon (who has the capabilities needed by a UTV manufacturer) who has shown some interest in the assets pending what is on the list.
At Stealth 4x4 Northwest, they still have customers calling who want Stealth Manufacturing Equipment and who are very pleased with the design and quality of the Stealth Manufacturing Equipment that they have. With regards to any future stealth electric motor needs, D&D Motor Systems will be servicing the market for the forseeable future. If a follow-on manufacturer did take over the line and start manufacturing again, it seems there is still a market for the equipment.
Once again for anyone needing any stealth 4x4 electric vehicle motors for the stealth nighthawk or stealth appache, just call D&D Motor Systems, Inc at 315-701-0635 or submit your request to them at : http://ddmotorsystems.com/DriveQuote.php?RPG=Menu .
MSD (stealth 4x4, stealth electric, stealth electric 4x4)
|E-Force - Electric ATV Motors
By: Eco Electric ATV
|Filed Under: ATV | Utility Vehicle | Hunting Buggy -
E-Force - with Electric ATV Motors
Built in Ellicottville, NY the E-FORCE is the first all electric zero-emission, adult sized electric ATV motor driven with adult sized power and torque for extreme terrain. The E-FORCE ’s Torque on Demand electric ATV motor drive system has more than three times the torque of similar sized gas ATVs! MSD
|Polaris Announces Donation to Support Arizona Trail Work
By: CROWDOG - News.UTVGuide.net
|Filed Under: ATV | Utility Vehicle | Hunting Buggy -
MINNEAPOLIS, MN Polaris Industries Inc. today announced it has donated a PolarisRANGER 800 EFI Mid-Size(using electric ATV motors) and $24,000 to the National Forest Foundation (NFF), a non-profit partner of the U.S. Forest Service. This contribution benefits the Kelly Motorized Trail Implementation initiative and will revitalize and maintain 13 miles of hunting buggy trails in the Coconino National Forest, just outside Flagstaff, Ariz. The donation will support trail construction, improvements and maintenance. Polaris customers and employees alike share a love of riding and respect for nature while using the electric ATV motor. That is why we continue to support projects that provide riders with sustainable, environmentally conscious trails by using the electric ATV motor, said Scott Wine, Polaris CEO. We are therefore proud to partner with the National Forest Foundation, as they consistently champion such efforts. We share their vision to create well-maintained public recreation areas that offer protected access to our public lands, not only so we can enjoy them today, but so future generations will have the same opportunity. By using the electric hunting buggy or electric ATV motor designs we can really help preserve our environment.
The NFF is working in the Coconino National Forest as part of its Treasured Landscapes, Unforgettable Experiences campaign, which aims to restore the habitat, recreation and ecological values of National Forests around the United States and strengthen the connection between Americans and these public lands. In many places, a variety of impacts have left popular trails in need of maintenance and improvement to help sustain the numbers of riding enthusiasts using those trails and visiting the forest throughout the year.
We are proud to work with Polaris on a project that uses electric ATV motors and that can benefit Arizonas forests and its outdoors and hunting buggy enthusiasts, said Jennifer Schoonen, NFF vice president for development. Partnerships like this one help us to ensure quality outdoor experiences as well as healthy public lands.
Work on the project will begin in summer 2013 with input from local trail rider & hunting buggy clubs, as well as assistance from youth conservation crews, who will gain job experience and outdoor skills in the process. MSD
|Bibb County Unveils Electric Utility Vehicle Fleet
By: Jasmine Williams - Going Green
|Filed Under: ATV | Utility Vehicle | Hunting Buggy -
MACON, Georgia (41NBC/WMGT) – Another eco-friendly fleet is hitting the streets in Bibb County, but these vehicles are a lot smaller and are like electric ATV motors.
The Bibb County Green Team and Bibb County Commission unveiled its eight new, electric utility vehicle motors. The Bad Boy electric utility vehicles are a newer, smaller addition to the county vehicles. Like this other fleet, this one is also 100% electric and can be charged at the Bibb County electric charging station. Several county departments will receive one including the recreation department and the property department. This platform is often seen used in a Hunting buggy or electric ATV motor.
Macon-Bibb Parks and Recreation manager Ben Hamrick can't wait for his department to get the hunting buggy style new ride. In October, Hamrick was able to test drive one of the electric utility vehicles at the Luke Bryan concert in Macon. With an estimated 20,000 concert goers, Hamrick said the small size allowed officers to access places they wouldn't have been able to get to before.
|Basic Car Hauler Maintenance Questions
|Filed Under: Automotive Haulers -
CARE ANSWERS FOR YOUR CARHAULER TRAILER
|Encouraging economic signs for car haulers
By: Posted by St. Eve
|Filed Under: Automotive Haulers -
Encouraging economic signs for car haulers and car hauler parts Wallenius Wilhelmsen just ordered up two brand new Post Panamax ships. These are specially designed ocean-going ships for RORO freight (roll on; roll off) "Although the car hauler parts carrying market at the moment might be somewhat weaker than we would like, we believe that the long term underlying growth potential for deep sea transportation of cars and high and heavy equipment is strong and positive," says Jan Eyvin Wang, president and CEO in WWASA. "We are therefore pleased to have come to an agreement with HHI to build two state of the art Post Panamax car carriers. The agreement also includes an option to build another two vessels." Source. (Highlight mine.) I consider this especially encouraging, because these ships won't even be delivered until 2014 and 2015. If a big company like this is willing to make this kind of long-term capital investment in such an asset, they must feel that future demand in 2014, 2015 and beyond... will support it. According a article posted by the BBC on May 1st, 2013to the BBC, US auto manufacturers' sales are at six year highs. Chrysler: up 11%; Ford, 18%; GM 23%. One would hope that the increased sales and consequent increased hours at assembly plants and suppliers would create a virtuous circle in which the employment numbers could continue to improve. What does it mean for car haulers and car hauler parts (AL4-4001A)in North America? Well, if you're making money now, you're probably going to continue making money. If you can convince the bank to underwrite the loan, you'll probably make more money with a new or refurbished truck with car hauler parts. Less downtime and shop bills, am I right? "If you convince the bank to underwrite the loan." A big if. Seems like many banks are still frozen in that 2008 "Lehman Moment". The big banks are like so many deer caught in the headlights, uncertain what to do. One of my customers recently switched his business to a local credit union and got much better rates and service. So in conclusion, if you think you're going to grow... be prepared to think outside the box as it relates to asset purchases. If the fundamentals are there, it's probably worth doing... if you can find the money for a truck loan. (car hauler trailer parts) MSD
|ELECTRACRAFT ELECTRIC BOAT MOTORS
By: Skip Toller
|Filed Under: Electric Boats -
The ElectraCraft Story
As the world’s leading manufacturer of electric boat motor boats, ElectraCraft has been designing and building high durability, low maintenance, environmentally-friendly electric boat motors leisure boats since 1975. Well suited to both freshwater lakes and rivers and saltwater harbors, ElectraCraft’s quality electric boat motor boats offer the perfect combination of high-end design, environmental responsibility, performance, and easy handling, all backed by lifetime limited warranties that are the best in the industry.
Today’s electric boat motor boats have a great future in this more ecologically aware era as sustainable, green alternative. Electric motors boats systems are smooth, quiet, reliable, and comparatively safe. A recent report from the EPA says that outboard motors emit nearly 70 times the pollution as a typical family car. Today, alarming levels of marine and freshwater pollution from a variety of sources are leading more lakes and waterways to outlaw gasoline and diesel boats. Electric boat motors make more and more sense and also cost significantly less to operate relative to a gas or diesel powered boat!
Offering the greatest value to our customers, ElectraCraft sells electric boat motors nationwide. ElectraCraft’s factory trained personnel are friendly and extremely knowledgeable on the features of each electric boat motor model, and are here to help you select the watercraft that best suits your lifestyle. ElectraCraft’s ongoing commitment to customer service is the reason why ElectraCraft has the highest percentage of repeat customers in the industry. We are all committed to maintaining the highest level of customer confidence this represents.
If you have built a lifestyle that centers on a harbor or lake, we’ll help you enjoy it to its fullest. We believe living on or near the water is enhanced when shared with family and friends. With an ElectraCraft electric boat motor, your lake or ocean bay becomes an extension of your home. It’s where some of the most memorable moments can happen. We’ve thought of every amenity, comfort and storage solution. Our emphasis on performance engineering ensures ease of handling and reliability. Please contact us to learn more about our new electric boat motors models as well as our current list of Certified Pre-Owned models.
The development of Westlake Lake in Southern California over 30 years ago created an electric boat motor market for a local company, ElectraCraft, who has since grown to become one of the largest electric boat motor manufacturers in the world today.
Frank Butler formed the first concept and design in the early 1970′s. The purchase of his home on Westlake Lake prompted the production of a 15′ boat equipped with 4 large batteries and a 1.5hp DC motor. This electric boat motors was named the “Runaboat”.
In 1975, Skip came on board at Catalina Yachts and within a few years expanded the concept of battery powered boating, and established the ElectraCraft line of electric powered boats. At it’s onset producing three models, presently boasting a variety of 8 different styles including a twin drive 21’ catamaran, the ElectraCraft 210CS.
ElectraCraft has branched out from it’s initial Southern California marketplace to include 32 other states. You will also find ElectraCraft cruising protected waterways in England, Holland, Sweden, Japan, Canada, Cayman Islands and China.
As we all are well aware, electric boat motors are a great way to spend quality time with friends and family, while enjoying a quiet, smooth ride. ElectraCraft electric boat motors offer many creature comforts such as sound systems, heaters, window enclosures and refrigerators, to name a few, allowing for full service and entertainment while cruising the water.
|Go-Float Signs New Dealers to Sell Its Electric Boats
By: By James Warden
|Filed Under: Electric Boats -
Based in Hopkins, Go-Float boats garnered their some of their first brand exposure on and around Lake Minnetonka.
Go-Float has signed four new U.S. dealers and one Israeli resort to sell the company’s electric boat motors, the company announced Wednesday.
The additional dealers are part of growing success the company credits in part to this year’s outboard electric motors boats shows. Prior to the shows, it introduced four new models for 2012 with prices below $5,000. Its production team has doubled in size and expects to quadruple in 2012.
“Our boat show results for the outboard electric motors have been better than expected. We are signing new dealers and those dealers report that they’ve sold outboard electric motors boats within days of receiving their first shipment,” a news release quoted Steve Hendrickson, Go-Float’s general manager. “Our vision of outboard electric motors boating is connecting with all types of people and we are thrilled to see the growing interest in Go-Float and our outboard electric motors.”
Based in Hopkins, Go-Float electric outboard motors boats garnered their some of their first brand exposure on and around Lake Minnetonka. Go-Float launched to provide environmentally friendly watercraft to boaters by using electric boat motors. It initially offered just two models. The $1,995 SL1 resonated with those who wanted a slower, more-relaxing experience on the water, while the $9,495 RX1 could reach speeds up to 20 mph and was capable of pulling a water skier.
The four 2012 models range from the $1,895 Ion with a top speed of 4 mph to the $16,995 Vector that can go up to 22 mph.
When 5th District Rep. Keith Ellison visited the company in the middle of April, officials described a booming business that was in talks with companies in regions ranging from Scandinavia to the Mideast. MSD
|Duffy Down Under debuts Duffy Electric Boats, Sanctuary Cove Boat Show
By: Duffy Down Under at Sail-World.com
|Filed Under: Electric Boats -
Well, it's not a sailing boat, but their hearts are in the right place. Duffy Down Under Pty Ltd is introducing a new Duffy Electric Boat model to Australia at the Sanctuary Cove International Boat Show 24-27 May in Berth D/E2 at the main marina.
This is the first time this electric boat will be displayed at the boat show, which is one of the primary boating events in Asia Pacific. The electric motors boats were also seen last week on the television show The Great South East.
The Duffy 22 Cuddy Cabin is being formally introduced to the Australian market for the first time. This spacious model is the flagship of the Duffy fleet, which offers unrivaled elegance, performance and innovation. The 22 Cuddy is equipped with the Patented Power Rudder, for unparalleled maneuverability, turning within its own length. You will not find more space, charm or performance capability in any other electric motors boats in the world.
Duffy Boats are dominant in harbors, lakes, and protected areas around the globe. Clean and quiet this model can hold up to 12 adults making it ideal for family outings, romantic cruises, entertaining or just exploring the wonderful Australian waterways.
'Duffy Electric Boats aren’t just an electric outboard boat,' explained Nitsa Kerr, Duffy Down Under’s general manager, 'they are a lifestyle. It’s like having your own limo on the water.' Each Duffy Electric Boat comes complete with full canopy top, full windowenclosures and a CD player with an iPod hookup. The boats cruise an average of 75 kilometers between charges, and the batteries recharge overnight for less than a few dollars AUD.
Gordon Kerr, Duffy Down Under chief executive. 'Duffy Electric Boats are ideal because of their zero emissions. They work harmoniously in the Gold Coast Marine Park with its varied fish life, dolphins, turtles and whales. As an added bonus, electric motors boats are allowed in Gold Coast areas where petrol-powered boats are forbidden.'
'In my 40 years in business travelling the world, I can tell you the Australian Gold Coast is perfect for our outboard electric motors. I firmly believe Duffy Electric Boats and the new Duffy 22 model will be ideal for those waterways,' noted Marshall 'Duffy' Duffield, company founder.
About Duffy Down Under Pty Ltd
Duffy Down Under is introducing Duffy Electric Boats to the Queensland marketplace by raising the profile and awareness of these unique electric motors boats, which are available for sale and also for hire seven days a week (weather permitting). The company also offers catering in partnership with local restaurants as well as group events and theme events. The company is has two locations at Mariners Cove Marina, Shop 4, Main Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland 4217 and Marina Village, 39B The Promenade, Sanctuary Cove, Queensland 4212.
More at www.duffydownunder.com.au
About the Duffy Electric Boat Company
Duffy Electric Boats, America’s largest electric boat manufacturer, has been in
business since 1970. The company currently produces over eight different electric
boat motors models. Each Duffy model is constructed from the highest quality materials in a
company-owned factory located on over six acres in Adelanto, California. Duffy
electric motors boats are emissions-free and low-maintenance.
by Duffy Down Under MSD
|Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Batteries for Electric Boats
By: Armin Pauza, EBAA business member
|Filed Under: Electric Boats -
This article explains the basic features and benefits regarding the latest developments in lithium ion battery technology which are now available for use in electric boats.
Up to the present time the electric boat owner has only had available one type of battery chemistry to provide propulsive power for their electric motor no matter whether the motor is an inboard or outboard motor. This battery type is of course the lead acid battery. There are two main variations to the lead acid battery depending upon its specific application. Broadly speaking the lead acid engine start or "cranking battery" in its intended application is designed to provide a short, high power burst of electrical current to crank over either a petrol or diesel engine while starting. The other main type of lead acid battery is the deep cycle or gel/AGM type which is used to provide sustained power for electrical devices and equipment over a long period. This is the type of battery which commonly provides house power on boats as well as presently being the most common type to power electric boat motors.
Both types of lead acid batteries however have severe limitations. Lead acid batteries are extremely heavy and while weight may not be an important factor for batteries in a stationary environment, for use in a motive application such as a boat, having to move (accelerate/decelerate) such a heavy dead weight does not make much common sense. In addition lead acid batteries contain nasty chemicals such as sulphuric acid and toxic heavy metals like lead which are potentially hazardous to the environment.
Lead is a very heavy metal and for many years the search has been on to make a better battery that is also lighter in weight. Lithium is the logical choice since it is the lightest metal known to man. However in addition to being extremely light in weight, lithium is also extremely reactive and for this reason pure lithium metal is never found in nature. Lithium metal is manufactured from lithium salts which are extracted through mining activities mainly from brine lakes. It can also be extracted from sea water.
Lithium ion batteries have been available for several years for many consumer applications which most people would be familiar with. As with lead acid batteries, lithium ion batteries also are available in several chemistries, each having their particular good and bad points. The earliest lithium battery chemistries which became a commercial reality and which are still in use today for consumer items like mobile Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4)
Batteries for Electric Boats by Armin Pauza, EBAA business member Energy density comparison phones, notebook computer and camcorders etc. are cobalt oxide lithium ion batteries. Li-Co batteries have high energy densities but have the disadvantage that in large format applications and in cases where many separate cells are used which can potentially become unbalanced during several charge cycles, they can pose a dangerous risk of fire or explosion is a possibility. While these batteries are generally considered quite safe in small format applications such as for mobile phones and the like (generally one cell only is used therefore this is why the battery voltage of a typical mobile phone battery is 3.6 -3.7 volts) there could be disastrous consequences should a large lithium battery of this chemistry fitted to a boat catch fire.
In the mid 1990's Dr John B Goodenough and his research team from the University of Texas developed material used to make the Lithium Iron Phosphate battery (LiFePO4 for short). Dr Goodenough patented his invention and gave permission to Phostech Lithium/Hydro Quebec Canada to manufacture this material in commercial quantities for the production of LiFePO4 batteries which would be a superior replacement for lead acid batteries.
Unlike the hazardous nature of the earlier chemistry lithium battery types, lithium iron phosphate batteries are extremely stable and safe to use. This safety combined with their light weight has found wide use for these batteries for military applications and now for the emerging electric vehicle markets including electric boats. They are in fact even safer than lead acid batteries and do not suffer from some of the problems which are inherent to lead acid batteries such as, thermal runaway, sulphation when left in a discharged condition and high rates of self discharge if not used. Lead acid batteries generally have a life of only a few hundred deep charge cycles while a quality LiFePO4 battery can typically be charged in excess of 2000 times.
Though not as high in energy density as the earlier lithium battery types, the lithium iron phosphate battery still has a far higher energy density compared to the lead acid battery as can be seen from the graph on the left.
In recent years large format LiFePO4 batteries have been made to replace lead acid batteries and these batteries are now being widely used for battery packs to power electric vehicles as well as hybrid electric cars. They are also being used in high power electric cordless power tools.
The benefits to the boat owner of a quality LiFePO4 battery are many. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are a truly multi-application battery type so the one battery or battery bank can be used to provide propulsive power for the boat's electric motor/s as well as to supply all the electrical loads on a boat. Normally the electric motor requires a voltage of 36V, 48V or higher voltage while 12V is required for house power, radios, Lithium battery bank navigation lights, etc. In this case a suitable DC/DC converter should be used to provide the lower voltage from the higher voltage main battery bank. It is very bad practice and still used by some manufacturers to simply tap off 12V from a single battery in the main battery pack to supply this lower voltage. This can lead to uneven discharging of different batteries due to varying loads which can further result in some batteries being over charged while others end up being less than fully charged. By fitting a DC/DC converter all batteries are discharged evenly regardless of varying loads. This will result in the longest life from all batteries and will minimise the chances of individual batteries failing prematurely which is a strong possibility if a DC/DC converter is not used.
Another major factor which should be taken into consideration when replacing a lead acid battery with a LiFePO4 battery is that due to the higher energy density and greater performance of the lithium battery often a smaller battery can be used which will provide equivalent or better performance compared to the original lead acid battery. For many applications a 60Ah LiFePO4 battery will provide equivalent performance to a 100Ah lead acid battery. This difference in performance can clearly be seen if both battery types are compared side by side in high current drain applications (for example if used to power an electric boat motor at high power settings). What many people fail to realise about a lead acid battery is that its capacity (Ah) rating is usually specified at the 20 hour discharge rate. At high rates of discharge the effective or "real" battery capacity is reduced considerably due to "Peukert's Effect". A typical 100Ah lead acid battery when discharged in an hour or two may have an actual measured capacity of as little as 60-70Ah. LiFePO4 batteries are not negatively affected in the same way by Peukert's Effect as are lead acid batteries.
When a lead acid battery is connected to a load (such as an electric motor for example) the voltage slowly continues to decrease until the battery is completely discharged. By contrast the discharge characteristic of a LiFePO4 battery is quite different. The discharge curve of LiFePO4 battery is close to being linear for about 90% of its capacity. Therefore a LiFePO4 battery can be almost fully discharged yet it will provide very close to the same power as when it was fully charged. During the last 10% of the batteries capacity the voltage will drop very suddenly.
Another great benefit of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries for boating applications is due to their inherent safety features. Since they do not produce flammable hydrogen gas under any circumstances (even if overcharged) a LiFePO4 battery can be safely installed in a confined place in a boat or ship without fear of a fire or explosion occurring. There is absolutely no maintenance required so a battery can be fitted into an out of the way space in an electric boat such as under seats, under stair wells, in the hull, etc. Due to slim cylindrical nature of many LiFePO4 cells a custom battery of virtually any shape can be made which will fit into any tight space in a boat. Battery cells can even be fitted inside a mast or inside hollow railings.
Another advantage of LiFePO4 batteries is their rapid charge capability. High quality batteries can be re-charged extremely quickly. In fact premium quality LiFePO4 batteries can be re-charged from a completely discharged state to more than 90% fully charged in only fifteen minutes with a suitable fast charger from shore power. Of course they can also be more slowly trickle charged by solar panels or more quickly aboard the boat via an engine driven back up generator/alternator. A deeply discharged deep cycle/AGM lead acid battery can only be re-charged in a matter of hours and not minutes. For many electric boats this rapid charge capability will be a godsend.
Weight is another factor of concern to owners of electric boats. A Lithium Iron Phosphate battery is usually about half the weight of an equivalent capacity lead acid battery. For example the photo of the battery bank below shows a large LiFePO4 battery bank used to power three motors fitted to a 55ft electric racing catamaran. It was originally planned to fit more than half a ton of AGM lead acid batteries to this boat before the owner learned of the benefits of LiFePO4 batteries. Due to the many benefits the owner of the boat decided to install LiFePO4 batteries instead and was able to reduce the total weight of the battery bank by more than half with the total of all twelve batteries weighing in at less than 200kg.
To sum up, an overview of the benefits of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries:
• Safe technology, will not catch fire or explode with overcharge
• Over 2000 discharge cycles life compared to typically around 300 for lead acid
• Double the usable capacity of similar amp hour lead acid batteries
• Virtually flat discharge curve means maximum power available until fully discharged (no "voltage sag" with time as with lead acid batteries).
• Unlike lead acid batteries, can be left in a partially discharged state for extended periods without causing permanent damage
• Extremely low self discharge rate (unlike lead acid which will go flat quite quickly if left sitting for long periods)
• Does not suffer from "thermal runaway"
• Can be used safely in high ambient temperatures of up to 60 deg.C or more without any degradation in performance
• Can be connected in series for higher voltages or parallel for higher capacity.
• Absolutely maintenance free for the life of the battery
• Can be operated in any orientation
• Does not contain any toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, nor any corrosive acids or alkalis thus making LiFePO4 batteries the most environmentally friendly battery chemistry available
• LiFePO4 cells are of solid construction. There are no fragile/brittle plates made of lead which can be prone to failure over time as a result of vibration.
• Can be safely rapidly recharged. When fully discharged can be re-charged to more than 90% full battery capacity in only 15 minutes.
There are already several brands of LiFePO4 batteries which are available to boat owners and are suitable for powering many kinds of electric motors from tiny trolling motors to large inboard electric motors of several horsepower. The prospective battery purchaser should be aware that the majority of the LiFePO4 batteries manufactured in China are of very poor quality and correspondingly provide poor overall performance. These batteries will also have a shorter life than a quality LiFePO4 battery. Only high quality LiFePO4 batteries should be used by the electric boat owner so as to provide peace of mind in terms of battery reliability. One way a battery buyer can gauge the quality of any particular battery brand is to check what kind of warranty the manufacturer/supplier will provide and whether it is a factory backed warranty or only a distributor backed warranty in the country of sale since many distributors of Chinese batteries are required by law to provide a minimum warranty period when a battery is sold in a western country. If a battery manufacturer is not prepared to stand behind their own products by providing a lengthy factory backed warranty then it is best to steer well clear of these companies so as to avoid any possible headaches in the future.
Chinese battery cell manufacturers will often assemble their cells using less expensive manufacturing techniques thereby reducing the final cost of the battery to the customer at the expense of shorter cycle life and/or poorer performance. For example some manufacturers will simply crimp end terminal caps on the cells while other manufacturers will spot weld or even fully laser weld the cell ends. Obviously a cell which is merely crimped will be cheaper to manufacture than a cell which is fully laser welded. By the same token the crimped cell is also more prone to fail prematurely due to slow ingress of moisture, humidity and other atmospheric contaminants which in a laser welded cell are totally excluded from entering the cell for the life of the cell. It really is a case of having to pay more for quality. By paying more for a quality battery a great deal of frustration can be avoided and allow the electric boat owner to enjoy the tranquillity of silent, electric boating without any noise or exhaust fumes. There are a handful of manufacturers of A-grade quality Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries which will outlast several lead acid batteries and provide vastly superior performance and thereby bring much enjoyment to the owner of the electric boat they are fitted in.
Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are sure to revolutionise and bring about the growth of the electric boating market in the years to come.
|Electric Boats: Then and Now
By: Four Seasons Electric Boats Website
|Filed Under: Electric Boats -
Electric boats are definitely not a new concept. What is believed to be the very first marine outboard motor was invented in 1880 by a French inventor, Gustave Trouve, and it was electric. In the early 1890's electric boats were first introduced in the United State with the formation of the Electric Launch Company (Elco) in Bayonne, New Jersey. It was the Chicago Exposition in 1893 that put them on the map. Elco was requested to build fifty-five (55) 36-foot electric launches for this event. Ticket sales to transport people around the Chicago area lakes and rivers exceeded 1,000,000.
That was over 120 years ago and at that time electric motors were the preferred form of propulsion. The electric "Picnic Launch" became the essence of a perfect lake cruise. Elco's company records reveal that Thomas Edison, John Jacob Astor, Admiral Dewey, George Westinghouse, and the Grand Duke Alexander of Russia were all owners of Elco electric launches.
There were, of course, steam engines that were very powerful, yet heavy, a lot of work and not conducive to a pleasant cruising experience - especially when their boilers would explode. In the late 1800s, there were also gasoline engines. These engines at that time were called "Explosion Engines". The names were later changed to "Gasoline Engines" to make them sound safer, and more appealing to the consumer.
After about 1920, gasoline and diesel engines became the primary propulsion units for boats - but they could never offer the quality of the electric cruising experience. At that time, electric boats lost their following, because the batteries could not carry enough energy to match the horsepower of the internal combustion engine - as folks became more intrigued with speed at the expense of comfort and quality of the boating experience.
However the Navy's submarines continued to rely heavily on electric propulsion - because it is fundamentally reliable, efficient, and quiet. Later on, Navy ships and commercial vessels returned to electric propulsion systems for the same reasons - but using generators to create the electricity.Today, the Queen Mary II is powered exclusively with electric motors that generate 157,000 horsepower.
So electric propulsion is not a "new concept" and is considered by far the most reliable form of propulsion. Not only is electric propulsion reliable and efficient, it offers the ultimate pleasure boating experience: relaxing, quiet, and NO smelly fumes.For these reasons combined with the advances in battery technology, electric pleasure boating has enjoyed a revival over the passed few decades.
Several companies, including Duffy Electric Boats, considered the industry leader of this revival since 1970, have resurrected the electric launch and other more contemporary designs.
Electric boating has become the boating lifestyle of choice for many thousands around the world in many different venues for the mainstream population.
|Green Inventor Talks Solar Powered Boats
By: Aaron Colter
|Filed Under: Electric Boats -
Before starting Tamarack Electric Boats, Montgomery Gisborne was interested in electric cars, but now he's focused on the water. Since 1993, Gisborne has been involved in the technical aspects of electric vehicles in Canada. Gisborne has been competing in the American version of the Tour del Sol since 1997, placing first in 2003, and he even created a similar race called the Canadian Clean Air Cruise.
To date, Gisborne has logged over 31,000 miles of travel in electric vehicles. But he's not only concerned with cars. In 2003 he built one of the world's first electric snowmobiles, and two years later he founded Tamarack Electric Boats. We've covered solar boats many times, and the company's latest invention, the Loon, caught our eye and when given the opportunity, we thought readers would like to know more about a man who designs such interesting electric vehicles.
EarthTechling (ET): You have an extensive background in electric cars, what made you want to start an electric boat company?
Montgomery Gisborne: Having built electric cars and electrified many other devices such as a snowmobile, I was always looking for a business opportunity in the mix. I had thought of building electric cars for a living, especially after coming in first in the 2003 American Tour del Sol electric car rally, but the reality that you cannot become GM overnight settled in. After much deliberation, I decided that the idea of a solar-powered boat must be a good one, perhaps my best, so I decided to build me first solar boat as a "science project" in 2005. The boat worked so well that I little choice but to purse it!
ET: Was there any specific reason that you were looking to move the company from Canada to the United States?
Gisborne: Sure, more people, water and sun. I think that we brought our ideas to NYS at a time when Canada seemed to focus its attention the Athabasca Tar Sands, and NYS was looking for sustainable product projects to create sustainable jobs. Then there's this crazy little piece of legislation which was brought into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) called the Jones Act which prohibits Canadian companies from selling boats into the US, so we had a triumvirate of good reasons to move across the border.
ET: Was the NYSERDA incentive program the biggest draw to relocate to Rome, NY?
Gisborne: No, probably not. You may have heard the old expression that "it takes a village . . . " I believe it is very true. When I passed through Rome on my solar trek across the state in 2007, i was overwhelmed by the reaction and enthusiasm of the people, more so that anywhere else I had traveled in my solar boats (which says a lot). The entire town seemed to make time to be there to catch our lines as we tossed them to shore, which really impressed me. The mayor of the town clearly saw the vision and has done more than we could ever have expected to convince us that Rome is our home. Incidentally, the first shovelful of earth removed in the construction of the Erie Canal was taken out of the ground pretty much in font of our shop on July 4th, 1817.
I think we would have made the move anyway, without NYSERDA funding, but the funding made it possible and got us started much quicker than if we had to go it completely alone. The funding is great, but it takes more than money to create an industry, it takes drive and determination beyond my own.
ET: Why did you decide on solar-power for the Loon above other electric options?
Gisborne: There are so many reasons that make solar a natural on an electric boat. People look at my boats and say, "Oh, I get it, when the is moored at the it is picked up a free charge." While this is certainly true, the rationale for the solar goes far beyond that. For example, it dramatically reduced Peukert Effect on lead-acid batteries. Without getting into a long-winded technical discussion, this effect has a negative effect on batteries when the boat is under power, reducing the instantaneous capacity of the energy storage cells, and the solar input helps to reduce that effect, thus increasing the effective range the boat can travel on a given charge. This also helps the lead-acid batteries to better compete against other chemistries, such as nickel and lithium-based batteries at lower expense.
I hate oil is the reason why I eschew any internal-combustion options. It is the greatest detriment to the North American economy and a threat to world peace.
Read Entire Article
|This is not a 'toy boat'
By: Ed Killer
|Filed Under: Electric Boats -
STUART — STUART — When St.
Petersburg boaters Nancy Frainetti and Jeff Springfield pulled up to the fuel dock
at Hutchinson Island Marriott Marina in Stuart Tuesday afternoon, one thing was
noticeably absent — engine noise.
leisurely cruise from the River Forest Yachting Center on the St. Lucie Canal in
Tropical Acres to the Marriott served as the final leg of the 8-day, 250-mile
“Cruise to the Atlantic.”
Frainetti and Springfield,
owners of Endeavour Green, builders of electric hybrid yachts, left St. Petersburg
June 16 and traversed the Okeechobee Waterway in their 24-foot boat while
using only $16 in electricity and a few gallons of diesel
“We did this to show people that this is not a ‘toy
boat,’” said Springfield, a longtime captain who said many
boaters think electric-powered boats are typically for small lakes and short trips.
“A typical boating family might enjoy a 20-mile trip. We had legs of this trip
of 40, 47 and on Monday, 52 miles in a day.”
behind the Endeavour involves a 48 volt array of batteries that turn the 13
horsepower D & D motor. The electric motor uses a twin belt setup to turn
the drive shaft for a 3-blade bronze inboard propeller.
can be charged at home or marina by plugging into a 110 volt outlet. To recharge
the batteries while under way, a 3.5 kilowatt Master Volt Whisper diesel generator
is employed. During the 8-day trip, Springfield said only nine hours were put on
the generator and at 3.8 hours per gallon, they needed less than three gallons of
The Endeavour provided comfortable passage, Frainetti said,
despite record heat during their trip. A full-length canvas top — one that
can fold down and serve as a boat cover when not in use — shades a
“We endured a little weather — but
that’s something boaters are used to handling,” Frainetti said.
“It got a little hot out on Lake Okeechobee Monday, but we managed to
keep it from baking our brains.”
Frainetti said that although the
Endeavour has Eisenglass and air conditioning, they survived without
Frainetti said she saw several manatees during the trip and counted
38 alligators while crossing Lake Okeechobee.
Springfield said the
hybrid technology is receiving a lot of interest from the boating community. He
said that one selling feature is the simplicity of its
“It’s an easy boat to own,” Springfield
said. “It’s very simple — there are no complex systems. All
the electrical components are solid state design. There are no fumes, vibration or
noise. And because you are carrying little or no fuel, insurance rates are
For more information visit www.EndeavourGreen.com or call
|Hybrid boats making waves in South Florida
|Filed Under: Electric Boats -
A brand new boat making waves in South
Florida, and it runs on batteries. The Endeavour Green Company, part of the
Endeavour Catamaran Corporation, showed off it's "green" boat. Co-owners,
Nancy Frainetti and Jeff Stringfield, traveled from Saint Petersburg to Stuart.
They did it all on battery power, no gas or diesel fuel needed, unless you want to
use the back-up generator on board. The Endeavor Green Company created the
boat, which is equivalent to a gas or diesel fueled deck boat. The starting cost is
around $42,000. The owners say it's well worth the price, and it helps the
environment. Endeavour Co-owner, Nancy Frainetti, says, "We have no
emissions on the electric propulsion. So, it's as green as can be. What a
The boat is also decked out with a bathroom on board and air
conditioning. It charges up each night, and usually costs only $1.50. Take
that versus a gas or diesel engine that could cost you anywhere from $50 to $75
dollars a day to gas up.
|How to Build an Electric Motorcycle
By: Stryker at Instructables.com
|Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
I only work 3 miles from home but with gas prices getting out of control, I thought it would be great to have an electric motorcycle. I've always wanted an electric motorcycle and decided that doing an electric motorcycle conversion with an electric motorcycle motor would be a good EV project, keeping costs down, and be fun to ride.
This project took about 3 months of research and development (not counting waiting for parts to come in or help from a friend with the welding). All in all, it cost about $3000 to build an electric motorcycle with a high performance electric motorcycle motor. This may take a long time to pay off in gas savings, but if you add the fun of building and all of the environmental benefits, it was well worth the effort. With a top electric motorcycle motor speed of over 70 mph and 10 miles per charge, this electric motorcycle is perfect for me. The following instructable will not give you exact step by step instructions, but if you have some mechanical skills and welding ability you should be okay. A little knowledge of electric motorcycle motor maintenance wouldn't hurt, too. However, I just read the user's manual and learned as I went.
Every motorbike is different but the basic components can be the same. Below is a list of the parts I used and where I got them, but you will have to do some research to figure out what fits your bike and requirements. Check out the electric motorcycle photos at the bottom to see what I bought and the EVAlbum for other electric motorcycle conversions.
Frame: I looked at many different bike styles and decided on a 1984 Honda Interceptor for my electric motorcycle conversion for a few reasons:
1) I like the style of bike, not a total crotch rocket but not a hog either, with room for electric motorcycle batteries inside the frame.
2) The seller on Ebay was close to my house. And the bike didn't run, so it only cost $600 which is a perfect price for your first time electric motorcycle conversion . If you have an old bike or someone will donate one then that's great--but for the rest of us, try the local paper, junk yards, Craig's List or ebay motors.
Electric Motorcycle Motor:
After reading other electric motorcycle conversion specs (and knowing that I wanted to go faster than a moped), I chose a 72V electric motorcycle motor(D&D Motorsystems carries many options), because it's weight and dimensions where good for my frame.
Electric Motorcycle Batteries: I went with 6 Yellow Top Optima batteries from remybattery.com because they are sealed and have received great reviews. After making cardboard mock ups of the D23 model I realized that there was no way six full sized batteries would fit and still look good. I ended up getting the D51 model. Half the size and weight but also half the storage.
Electric Motorcycle Controller: You have to match your electric motorcycle controller to your voltage but the amperage is up to your budget. More amps = more power and more cost. It seems that there are only two real choices: Alltrax or Curtis. You'll have to decide for yourself, but I went with the 72V 450Amp Alltrax.(D&D Motor Systems carries these) Don't waste your time trying to build a potimeter on an old throttle--just buy a pre-made one and be done with it. I got the Magura 0-5K Twist grip throttle.
Electric Motorcycle Charger: You have to match your charger with your voltage but the speed of charge in Amps is also up to your budget. I went with a Zivan NG1 but I have recently switched to six individual 3amp Soneil chargers to help balance the batteries.
Electric Motorcycle DC/DC Converter: It's safest to run with a DC/DC converter and an extra 12V battery backup but motorcycles have limited space so I am only using the converter. I purchased a Sevcon 72V Input 13.5V output from evparts and it has working perfectly.
Electric Motorcycle Fuses: You'll want to get a fuse that matches your setup. I bought model ANN 400 w/ holder.(D&D Motor Systems carries these)
Electric Motorcycle Solenoid: This is a device that you hook up to your existing key ignition on 12Volts and it will close the loop so you get the full power to your controller. An excellent Solenoid is the Albright SW-180B-12.(D&D Motor Systems carries these)
Electric Motorcycle Battery cable and connectors- I bought about 10 feet of 2 GA wire from WAL-MART and cut it to length. Using Lugs, I soldered and used heat shrink tubing on each end. I highly recommend battery terminal covers for safety.
Electric Motorcycle Instruments I chose an E-meter(Link 10) w/ Prescaler add on for 72V use instead of a bunch of different meters. As an added feature I wired up the ignition switch to the neutral indicator to show me when the bike was on.
Electric Motorcycle Other parts
Wire - 12GA different colors and heat shrink tubing (large and small sizes)
Basic shop tools are required such as a socket set, screw drivers,wire stripper, etc. Additionally a volt meter, metal grinder and crimper are used in this electric motorcycle conversion project.
Start the electric motorcycle conversion by removing all of those nasty internal combustion engine parts. Remove the gas tank and using your grinder or other cutting tool to cut out the bottom. This makes room for extra batteries or components. (Make sure all gas is out before cutting) Reference your owners manual often during any electric motorcycle conversions so that you don't cut any necessary wires, and try to sell some of the parts to help pay for this electric motorcycle conversion project.
Next, make cardboard mock ups of all of your batteries and electronic components to see how and where things are going to fit. Take a look at my electric motorcycle conversions pictures to see how I fit everything, believe me that taking the time to make accurate cardboard mock ups is well worth the effort.
Now for the hard part. You need a secure battery box and electric motorcycle motor mount for any electric motorcycle conversion. I had a friend weld it up for me and he did a fantastic job. From the photos you can see that he first strung up the electric motorcycle motor to allow for minor adjustment to be made before cutting the electric motorcycle motor mount plate. After that was cut he made a nice chain and sprocket enclosure with a door and welded them onto the frame.
Next he fabricated the battery rack and gave each battery a swing arm closure to give a tight fit yet still allow me to get them out easily. Half inch foam padding spacers are between each battery to help cushion the stack--but believe me, they aren't going anywhere. The last thing he did was weld in metal plates for mounting my electric motorcycle motor.
After you get your electric motorcycle motor mount and battery compartment all welded up, take some time to clean up the frame of your bike. I removed any rust spots and chipped paint that I could find. Then I used some metallic gray and black spray paint. This makes a world of difference and costs very little.
I made a fake gas cap and ran the power cord from the charger up the frame and out the top.
Now that you have all of the welding done and your electric motorcycle frame looks great, let's install the electrical components and start wiring it up your electric motorcycle conversion.
Wiring. This depends on the electric motorcycle components you buy. See the manufacturers wiring diagrams.
Double check all of your connections and tighten every bolt.
I wanted my electric motorcycle conversions bike to look as good as it rides, so I had all of the panels painted and custom graphics made up by worldsendimages.
Using a serial cable and laptop, tweak the electric motorcycle controller program for your riding preferences.
Lastly, I got the electric motorcycle conversion bike inspected and insured. (Be prepared for the dealership mechanics to swarm and hit you with a bunch of questions and jokes about failing the emissions test).
I know these weren't step by step building instructions, but that's because of the complexity of this electric motorcycle conversion project and variables in component use. My intention was to give you the motivation to build your own by seeing how I did it and make it easier by supplying the electric motorcycle parts list and a wiring diagram. MSD
|2012 Brutus Electric Motorcycle Promises To Be Green, Mean
By: Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield
|Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
Think about the names given to electric cars and electric motorcycles on the market today.
Most, if not all, are a play on the concept of all-electric, zero tailpipe emissions travel.
So when we heard about a team of engineers in Henderson, Nevada who were developing a new electric motorcycle called Brutus 2, we had to investigate.
Retro Styled, Classic Charm
Squint at the all-electric Brutus 2 and you’d be forgiven for thinking it was a classic Harley Davidson bobber or perhaps an Orange County Chopper.
Either that, or a working prop from a film set in a post-appocolyptic future, Mel Gibson optional.
Designed from the ground up to be the living embodiment of a sports cruiser, Brutus 2 is the first electric motorcycle we’ve seen that caters directly to fans of classic American motorcycles.
Brutus 2 is also the first real stealth electric motorcycle we’ve seen. Unless you look at it closely, it doesn't immediately appear electric.
In fact, park it up beside similar gas motorcycles, and we think you’d have a tough time telling it apart from the rest.
It Isn’t Just Tough By Name
But as many classic motorcycle fans will tell you, good looks and a tough name will only get a motorcycle so far.
In order to be considered a real motorcycle, it has to perform like one.
That’s no problem for Brutus 2, claims Chris Bell, the original designer and owner of Brutus Electric Motorcycles.
Although it hasn’t had any official range, or performance tests, Bell claims the 535-pound motorcycle can spring from 0-60 mph in around 4.7 seconds, reach a top speed of over 100 mph, and travel over 100 miles per charge.
These impressive performance figures are apparently down to a five-speed clutchless transmission, a powerful DC motor, and a liquid-cooled Zilla controller more commonly found in electric drag race cars like BlackCurrent III
There aren’t any details published on battery pack capacity, although Bell claims Brutus 2 should recharge its 144-volt lithium-ion battery pack in 3 hours from an available 110-volt wall outlet. Using some basic math, we think that translates to a battery capacity of between 4 and 5 kilowatt-hours.
Here’s the catch: while Brutus 2 is certainly an real electric motorcycle built for real motorcyclists, it hasn’t entered production yet.
According to Bell, that should happen some time this year, provided current deals being discussed with various parts and manufacturing companies are signed.
But right now, the all-electric beast is nothing more than an impressive prototype motorcycle awaiting production.
And that’s a real shame, because we think this is exactly the kind of electric motorcycle that needs to be built in order to help convince mainstream motorcyclists that electric powered motorcycles can be mean and green at the same time.
|E-motorcycle offers hot ride, keeps the cool
By: Angeli Duffin
|Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
Making the case for an electric car - higher up-front costs, but then much less expensive and environmentally damaging to operate - to someone switching from a gasoline-powered car is pretty straightforward.
But convincing someone to trade in their Harley for an electric motorcycle? That could be more challenging. There has to be an element of cool. And speed.
Which is what two Purdue University students and AllCell Technologies set out to produce – and appear to have delivered, with an electric motorcyclethat packs 72 kilowatts of power and, according to early tests, can hit 120 mph and cover 120 miles on a charge, according to AllCell.
The company said the trick to creating this high-performance bike was in the 10.6 kilowatt-hour lithium ion battery that uses AllCell’s thermal management material.
The phase change material graphite composite (PCM-graphite) controls the impact if one cell has an internal short circuit, and the PCM material absorbs and distributes heat away from the battery, protecting the cells and maximizing battery life.
While some motorcyclists might enjoy being daredevils, with this motorcycle riders can let ‘er rip and concentrate on driving without worrying about unnecessary things like an overheating battery. Apart from the battery, electric vehicle experts Tesla Motors and Delphi Corporation also provided support for the project, AllCell said.
This team is not alone in the quest for the superior electric motorcycle. There seems to be quite a trend in DIY green conversion of motorcycles in garages, notably from a fellow Purdue student who we reported used solar power to power his, yes that’s right, Solar Cycle.
However, for those of us who aren’t that confident in our mechanical skills, there are a growing number of companies producing electric motorcycles with both coolness (largely because of their green-factor) and impressive power and speed.
|Will Electric Motorcycles Catch On Faster Than Electric Cars?
By: By Jonathan Welsh
|Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
The International Motorcycle Show starts in New York today, so the Jacob Javits Center will be awash in chrome-crusted cruisers weighing more than 600 pounds and packing car-size engines, and screaming superbikes with enough horsepower to fly a four-passenger airplane.
But some of the most intriguing machines at the show are small, light and nearly silent.
Electric motorcycles powered by lithium batteries are beginning to look like contenders in a bike market that is increasingly concerned about fuel efficiency, emissions and noise.
Electrics may attract customers who like the idea of two-wheel transport but are put off by the mechanical complexity of traditional motorcycles and the perceived difficulty in riding them. They may also have particular appeal to urban riders and commuters who can operate more easily within the bikes’ limited range.
I test-rode an electric sport motorcycle called the Zero S this and week and was surprised by how appealing it is even for someone who loves the chugging rhythm of a Ducati twin or the wail of an old Honda V4. The quiet whir of the electric motor and its impressive off-the-line acceleration made the Zero ideal for city riding, where hearing nearby traffic can be as important as seeing it.
While the motor puts out about 28 horsepower, it feels like much more, especially when accelerating from a standstill. I was able to leave menacing taxis far behind and the bike’s weight of less than 300 pounds gave it a light, athletic feel that made getting through midtown New York’s congestion enjoyable.
The Zero S has evolved since 2009, when I rode an early version. The new bike is faster, smoother and better-looking than its predecessor and has a tighter, well-finished feel. It’s ready for prime time.
As with electric cars, though, high prices could keep some customers away. The S and its on-road-off-road stable mate the DS start at $11,495. The higher-capacity battery that boosts range to 114 miles from about 76 miles with the standard battery also increases the price to $13,995. That amount would buy a Honda CBR1000RR, which is close to being a street-legal racing bike.
Of course riders interested in electric motorcycles are not cross-shopping superbikes. But the Zero’s price premium could hurt sales.
Still, the simple joy of riding the Zero could be as big a selling point as its potential fuel savings. In many ways its design and the way it rides are throwbacks to the minimalism and excitement of earlier motorcycles that drew so many people into riding decades ago.
While I tell people that my next new car will probably be electric, a battery-powered motorcycle, in some ways, would be a better fit.
|A new day.. a new bike. Electric Motorsports of California
|Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
Oakland California USA, Electric Motorsport
Inc. has unveiled its two entries for the June/12th Isle of Man TTXGP. In
the open class is a modified production electric motorcycle called the GPR-S.
The Electric Motorsport GPR-S were the first Production
Electricmotorcycles capable of attaining legal freeway speeds in the
In the Pro Class, the entry is the Electric Motorsport R144.
This conversion is based on an R1 race chassis. This motorcycle utilizes
a high performance electric motor designed and manufactured by D&D Motor
Electric Motorsport is a technology company that specializes in
Light Electric Vehicles and electric propulsion systems.
Electric Motorsport is proud to say they have supplied electric drive
systems and components to many of the TTXGP teams that will be
competing. Why does Electric Motorsport supply its
competitors with hi-performance electric drive components?
Electric motorsport Founder and CEO Todd Kollin says "its mainly to
promote the technology and to have some one to race with, and besides we are
in the parts business. Racing is just the fun part and its not much
fun without competition."
Electric Motorsport Inc has always placed an
emphasis on the Electric motorcycle as away of using renewable energy such as
solar, wind, hydroelectric, and geothermal to propel ourselves from one location
to the next. The company has sold 1000's of electric
motorcycle conversion kits. Electric Motorsport even sells books
on how to convert your old gas motorcycle to electric. These
conversions are great if you have a old bike that does not run so well or has a
blown engine. An electric conversion can bring the thing
back to life but without having to deal with oil, gas, noise, fumes, warm ups,tune
ups, gear boxes, clutches.
|Honda Promises An Electric Motorcycle By 2010
|Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
Honda is getting into the electric motorcycle biz huh? Well, now we know what
they plan to do with all the engineering talent suddenly available from their now
defunct F1 & AMA
News (via our friends at AutoBlogGreen) says Honda is serious about
building a workable Ebike and selling it to the likes of you and me by 2010. Sure,
that sounds plausible. Honda has the engineering grunt and it pretty much has
the whole motorcycle thing down, so it seems like a lead pipe
But is it?
Not exactly. Honda faces the same hurdles everyone else does:
range and recharge
I spent some time with an outfit made electric scooters and
motorcycles. It was a real geeky operation making scooters and souped-up jobs
custom-built to customers' needs, desires and checkbooks. Once or twice a
year someone with sacks of money would come in and say something along the
lines of "Take my GSX-R and make it
electric." We would, but we'd invariably face the same challenges everyone else
building EVs faces: range and recharge times.
Yeah, we could build an
electric GSX-R that would out haul Valentino Rossi - for about
seven to 10 miles. Then you'd stop. And then you'd have to plug it in for six or
eight or 10 hours. The bike was cool, but not very practical. You couldn't take the
thing up some canyon road on your way out of town to Palm Springs for a three
day weekend. These will be the same limitations that Honda will face, but in a
couple of not so noticeable ways, electric motorcycles play to Honda's
For one, bikes are easy. They're small, light and easy to
work on. You can fab up and try things on two or three test mules in an
afternoon, and that's an order of magnitude or so harder with cars. For another,
Honda is a bike company. Yeah, I know, tell that to Ayrton Senna and Alain Prost and Ron Dennis, but it started out primarily as a
bike company (OK, go back far enough and it started out as a piston ring
company, but still...) then morphed into a car company. What Honda learns from
making an Ebike over the next two years can, hopefully, migrate to
Honda confirms working with bikes is favorable on a number of
"History shows that motorcycles remain strong in a difficult
market environment and have always supported Honda in difficult times," says
CEO Takeo Fukui.
"People showed renewed interest in the value of motorcycles which consume
less fuel for commuting purposes as well as for their easy-to-own/easy-to-use
Good point, Takeo. That's another thing bikes got going
for them: They're cheap.
Pound for pound and dollar for dollar
motorcycles are the best bet for enthusiast fun. Not for me, of course, because I
am comically and frighteningly uncoordinated and that's never a good thing on
a motorcycle. But you get my point.
Think of what Honda is doing as a
real world proof of concept scheme. Make an electric motorcycle. Make it work.
Make it work better. Then import the technology into a car. Repeat the
What could go wrong?
|An Electric Hybrid Truck Designed For Utility Fleets
By: Ucilia Wang
|Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
If you can soup up a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle(EV), what features would you want? For some fleet managers, turning plug-in hybrids into a source for powering up construction tools or buildings during a blackout is high on the list.
That’ why Pacific Gas & Electric Co. has been helping VIA Motors to convert new General Motors trucks into plug-in hybrids with the ability to export a large amount of power. The utility, the largest in California, envisions sending a bunch of these trucks into the field for routine maintenance work and to deal with emergencies. The amount of exportable power here will be large enough to run hydraulic lifts to send workers up the powerlines to do repairs or serve as backup power for homes while workers fix faulty circuits or transformers, said Dave Meisel, director of transportation services at PG&E. (EV motors)
Hybrid cars offer fuel savings over time – the price of gasoline has risen and will continue to increase at greater rates than the price of electricity – as well as environmental benefits such as lower emissions, he said. As federal and states introduce stricter fuel economy and emission standards, businesses must comply by buying vehicles with more fuel-efficient engines or ones that run on cleaner sources of fuels. But alternative-fuel vehicles also tend to cost more partly because they aren’t made in large volumes, and fleet managers very much focus on the payback period of their investments.
Adding the exportable power feature creates additional savings for fleet owners like PG&E, Meisel said. It eliminates the need for buying portable generators that run on fossil fuels, for example. Using the hybrid trucks to reduce the length of a blackout also is an attractive proposition for utilities, which face fines if their customers experience a high number of outages or if they can’t restore power quickly.
“We are looking at broader savings that a lot of people are not looking at,” Meisel said. “When I look at the total operational savings, including fuel savings, the math starts to look really nice.” PG&E has about 9,000 vehicles in its fleet, and roughly 3,100 of them run on alternative fuels, such as natural gas, electricity and biodiesel.
PG&E has been field-testing two VIA trucks since last year and giving the car company feedback about its experience and suggestions for improvements. The utility estimates that the trucks could deliver annual fuel maintenance savings of $7000 per vehicle compared with conventional trucks, said Greg Pruett, senior vice president of corporate affairs at PG&E, during a press event at the Detroit auto show earlier this month when VIA discussed its plans to launch not just hybrid trucks but also hybrid SUVs and vans. VIA plans to convert only GM models, such as the Chevy Silverado, for now.
VIA has developed a powertrain that includes a 24 kilowatt-hour lithium-ion battery pack, which can last up to 40 miles per charge. The gasoline engine is for generating electricity to run the electric motor, which moves the wheels. The company is putting its technology in brand new vehicles only, not used cars. When VIA Motors showed up at the Detroit auto show, its executives rattled off a list of things that people can do with vehicles that double as power generators, such as catering to outdoor parties and running outdoor concerts.
“Think of a 3-day camping trip where you have unlimited power with the car you drive into the woods with,” said Bob Lutz, a member of VIA’s board of directors and the former vice chairman of GM, during a press conference at the auto show.
The two VIA trucks PG&E has been trying out cost about $400,000 total, Meisel said. The trucks are the early version of what VIA plans to produce commercially later this year, Meisel said. The price for the trucks at “low volumes” should be in the $70,000 range, and it should continue to drop as production increases, he added.
VIA isn’t the only company PG&E is turning to for converted hybrids with exportable power. The utility also is considering vehicles from Electric VehicleInternational, which turns beefier pickup trucks to plug-in hybrids. VIA’s truck delivers 15 kilowatts of exportable power and is working on boosting that to 50 kilowatts while Electric Vehicle (EV) International is working on trucks with 100 kilowatts of exportable power. Figuring out a good way to cool the equipment that generates and routes the power becomes a greater hurdle as the size of exportable power increases.
PG&E and other fleet owners are turning to companies that can do after-market conversion for now partly because major automakers have yet to introduce the plug-in hybrid version of the trucks that the fleet owners want to buy.(EV motors) But that day will come if consumers continue to show interest in electric cars (and the prices for them drop). When that happens, companies such as VIA Motors may find it difficult to compete, said Kevin See, an analyst with Lux Research.
“There may be a short-lived window for them to make their mark,” See said. “I wouldn’t expect their businesses to be long-term because of the competition that will enter the market. (EV motor)” MSD
|Electric vehicle owners can get a charge in Media now
By: Susan L. Serbin
|Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
Media Borough has created another reason to make “Everybody’s Hometown” a destination. This time an initiative will make downtown the hometown for owners of electric vehicles (EV).
As only the third known location in Delaware County, Media has inaugurated a charging station in the municipal parking lot next to the Media Fire Department, across from Media-Upper Providence Library and one block from all that State Street has to offer.
The borough is participating in a pilot project for EV charging powered by 100 percent Pennsylvania wind energy. Borough officials and Community Energy, Inc. had the ribbon cutting recently, with attendance by representatives of the energy firm, Mayor Bob McMahon, Councilman Eric Stein, Environmental Advisory Council Chair Walt Cressler and several other borough staff member.
While the technology includes several cutting-edge elements, charging station operation is fairly simple: pull into the dedicated parking space (lot is between Jasper and Front streets just east of Jackson Street); plug the electric vehicle (EV) into the charger; dine, shop or attend to other borough business. In the span of an hour or two, EVs can be charged enough for at least several dozen miles.
“We are pleased to be partnering with Media Borough and the Media Fire Company as this becomes one of the first charging stations in the county,” said Jay Carlis, Vice President of Retail Marketing for Community Energy, Inc. based in Radnor. “This pilot project, funded by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, comes early in the electric vehicle transition. At the government level, Media has been a leader in environmental sustainability. This is a great location for residents and visitors.”
Carlis said there are electric vehicle (EV) charging stations in Radnor and Wayne and only a handful in the state, placing the borough in the forefront of the technology. To kick off the enterprise, he drove a Chevrolet Volt and hooked it up to demonstrate the virtual plug, charge and go technique.
Representatives from Thomas Chevrolet brought a second Volt. Amy Ercolani of Thomas said the dealership has sold several Volts, has one in stock, and expects the manufacturer to supply a small but steady stream of the model, which has a gasoline back-up capability. EVs are available from other automotive manufacturers as well.
Running at a 240-volt service, the public station works twice as fast as a charge from, for example, a home outlet which is generally half the volts. An hour charge is expected to cost $3.50 with Community Energy paying a fee to the borough for the actual electric used. The mileage value of a charge varies depending on the electric vehicle and road conditions, not unlike gas mileage. Not surprisingly, there are “apps” which can monitor the charge from mobile devices.
In the borough’s view, the station sends multiple signals about the alternative energy commitment which already includes a solar energy grid and wind-generated electricity purchase.
“I’m a strong supporter of renewable energy and any electric car conversion. I have solar energy at my home, so I’m not just talking theoretically,” said Stein, liaison to the Environmental Advisory Council. “It’s good for the economy, and good for the environment.” MSD Continued...
|General Motors and Iberdola to study EV charging infrastructure in Spain, UK
By: Sam Abuelsamid
|Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
General Motors will be collaborating with Spanish energy company Iberdola on a feasibility study to determine the infrastructure needs to support electric car motor vehicles in Europe. Similar studies are underway already between automakers and utility companies in the United States and elsewhere. The two companies have a relationship through other EV projects being run by EPRI. Under examination will be the needs for private, residential, and commercial customers as well as for publicly-accessible electric vehicle plugs. Among the issues that need to be resolved are how rates will be determined for EV (electric vehicle) charging and billing mechanisms. The study will be focused in Spain and the UK. As long as a good electric auto motor and electric vehicle motor controller can be procured, of which both can be procured at D&D Motor Systems, inc., anyone can build an EV car. (Electric car motors kits) MSD
|Chrysler Unveils Dodge EV
By: Ray Wert - Jalopnik.com
|Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
A Tesla-Like All-Electric Sports Car
Today on CNBC, Chrysler CEO Bob Nardelli revealed a Tesla
-like all-electric performance sports car called the Dodge ev along with three
other vehicles operating either partially or entirely on an electric powertrain. The
four vehicles are Chrysler's ENVI electric car motor program, and include an extended
-electric Chrysler minivan, a new "gated community" electric called "the peapod"
and a Jeep Wrangler four-door. The ev (electric vehicle), the first of the four unveiled, not only
operates entirely on plug-in power like the Tesla Roadster and
appears to have similar performance numbers, also has some striking visual
similarities with the Tesla. And why shouldn't it? While the Tesla's built on the
Lotus Elise, the Dodge ev appears to be based on the Lotus Europa.
|Utilities: Grid can handle influx of electric cars
|Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
Which draws more juice from the electric grid, a big-screen plasma television
or recharging an EV (electric vehicle)?
The answer is the car. But the
electricity draw by plasma televisions is easing the minds of utility company
executives across the nation as they plan for what is likely to be a conversion of
much of the country's vehicle fleet from gasoline to electricity in the coming
Rechargeable cars, industry officials say, consume about four
times the electricity as plasma TVs.
But the industry already has dealt
with increased electric demand from the millions of plasma TVs sold in recent
years. Officials say that experience will help them deal with the vehicle fleet
changeover to EV's.
So as long as the changeover from internal combustion
engines to electric vehicles is somewhat
gradual, they should be able to handle it in the same way, Mark Duvall, program
manager for electric transportation, power delivery and distribution for the
Electric Power Research Institute, said Tuesday.
added to the grid the equivalent of several years' production of EV hybrids,"
Duvall said at a conference on EV's (electric vehicles) in San Jose. "The utilities, they
stuck with it. They said, 'All right, that's what's happening. This is where the
loads are going, and we're going to do this."'
Automakers, such as General Motors Corp. and Toyota Motor Corp. , are planning
to bring EV motors to the market as early as 2010. But speakers at the
Plug-In 2008 conference say it will take much longer for them to arrive in mass
numbers, due in part to a current lack of large-battery manufacturing
|A New (Good) Look for Electric Cars
By: JACK LOSH / LONDON
|Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
Electric cars or EVs (electric vehicles) have been around for almost 170 years, but it's not
just the limitations of battery power that have thwarted their more widespread
use. Since Scottish businessman Robert Anderson pioneered the first electric
carriage in the 1830s, most EV's have lacked one of the key markers
of auto success: good looks. Just take a look at La Jamais Contente, designed
by Belgian Camille Jénatzy in 1899, or Billard and Zarpe's space-age
oddity, the Elektra King (1961). Even today's EV models — the REVA, or Zap!'s Xebra — are proof that the best adjective to
describe most electric cars remains quirky.
Now two new
models show that green can be given a devastatingly cool makeover. Britain's
Lightning GT and the U.S.-built Tesla Roadster both reach 60 m.p.h. in 4 seconds or less,
their makers claim, with top speeds approaching 130 m.p.h. The Lightning GT
— unveiled at London's International Motor Show last week and set to be
available from the end of 2009 — sports an impressive, sleek and sexy
design, drawing on Aston Martin's classic British look. Tesla, which launched its
hot, little open-top two-seater a couple of years ago, has already sold out of the
2008 model and is eagerly taking reservations for 2009. Battery power has rarely,
if ever, looked this good.
|Converting gas-powered cars to electric
By: Curt Merrill - CNN
|Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
Larry Horsley loves that he doesn't buy much gas, even though he drives his '95 Chevy S-10 back and forth to work each day. (Electric Car Conversion)
Horsley, a self-described do-it-yourselfer, simply plugs his EV motor(electric vehicle) truck into an electric wall outlet in his Douglasville, Georgia, garage and charges it overnight, instead of buying gasoline refined from mostly imported oil. Using electric motor conversion kits, many hobbyists are doing the same thing.
"If I can keep a dollar from going overseas, I'll spend two dollars," he said. The whole electric car motor conversion, including the truck and high performance EV motor, cost him about $12,000, which parts dealers say is about standard for an electric car conversion.
Another Atlanta-area tinkerer, David Kennington, converted his Honda Civic del Sol from gasoline to an EV for a different reason: "I'm a raging greenie," he said. (Electric Car Conversion)
Both Horsley and Kennington are fed up. They're among a growing number of Americans who are refusing to wait for big-car manufacturers to deliver a mainstream electric car, called EVs. Not only have they rebelled against the status quo by ripping out their gas-guzzling engines and replacing them with a zero-emission electric car motor, they say just about anyone can do an electric car conversion. As long as you get a good electric vehicle motor controller and electric auto motor, both can be purchased from D&D Motor Systems, Inc, you are well on your way. MSD
Rea d More
General DC motor
|How to: Build a Fuel-Less, Solar-Powered Vehicle
Dunn, Corvallis, OR, USA
|Filed Under: General DC motor -
TreeHugger has recently covered the Solar
Sailor and solar-powered electric bike, but we've never seen anything quite like this. For the
serious DIYer, SolarVehicles.org
offers info, resources, advice and even blueprints for building your own solar-
powered vehicle. Most of the models are somewhere between a scooter and a
golf cart, and, according to the pictures on the site, they even work! It may not be
the kind of thing you'd want to take on the highway or even a busy street, but
they seem perfect for putting around town. Once built, the three and four-
wheeled vehicles go between 25 and 40 km/h (about 15 to 25 mph) depending on
the load/cargo and grade of the road. The site has all the info you'll need to build
your own, from wheels to solar cells to frames, so you can get yourself around
using the power of the sun.
|Newest Go-Kart Race Track: Inside The Local Mall?
By: AOL Autos Staff
|Filed Under: Go Kart -
Having trouble finding an open parking space at your local shopping mall? Here's one way to solve that problem with a electric go kart with go cart motors.
Starting from the road outside, two men simply drove the electric go kart through the parking lot and then proceeded inside the Destiny USA mall in Syracuse, New York, at speeds of up to 45 miles per hour. There's a bit of a catch – Bob Congel and Bruce Kenan own the place.
In a promotional stunt, the video above shows them both whipping through the semi-closed mall, in some cases, while onlookers stand aside, making a pit stop in the venue's food court for a beverage and a fender bender or two.
Their goal was to promote high-performance electric go cart motors store Pole Position Raceway, which recently opened in Destiny. Pole Position, an electric go kart company, has eight locations throughout the country, and intends to open more soon, including one slated to open in St. Louis.
The company used electric go cart motors so that it can eschew running traditional gas engines inside. "From a competition standpoint, our high-performance electric go karts accelerate quicker and handle better than any other indoor competition kart on the planet" the company said in a written statement on its website. An electric go kart is installed with go cart motors that provide way more torque than a comparable gas model. MSD
|Club educates through electric vehicles
By: Geoff Burns
|Filed Under: Go Kart -
One club on campus is focusing on helping the environment by making electrical vehicles to promote clean and renewable fuel alternatives.
The University's Motor Sports Club is a student-run organization in which students can get hands-on experience with the latest technology and a chance to race electric go karts.
The club has been around since 1994 and has 20 students on roster.
Anthony Palumbo, adviser of the University's Motor Sports Club, said getting the experience of the reality-based program is something that cannot be learned in the classroom.
"One thing about motor sports above all other sports is that it's not only athletics participating, but people who can put stuff together with electronics," Palumbo said. "The beauty of the Motor Sports Club is that it's open to anybody with any major because the motor sports enterprise can utilize the experience of all majors."
The organization's program is funded by members, donations and marketing partners. (electric go kart)
"Last year we generated almost $20,000 of brand new money that did not come out of students' tuition," Palumbo said. "That money was used to buy and build the latest electric vehicle technology. We have state of the art technology here and my students get that experience."
President of the University's Motor Sports Club, Spencer Lee, said the program has recently converted into more of an environmental sustainability club.
"Last year was the year that we converted over to the electric go karts," Lee said. "Before we ran our carts on gas and ethanol."
Lee said there is a race called the Electrical Vehicle Grand Prix in Indianapolis the week after finals, which the club plans to complete in with their electric go kart. The go kart electric motors have more torque than there gas counterparts.
"What makes us different from other clubs is that we go out and actually compete in electric go kart races," Lee said.
One member of the Motor Sports Club, freshman Joseph Zbasnik, started participating in the electric go kart racing club during fall semester.
"Getting experience with the electrical technology and everything that goes into the design of the electric go kart is awesome," Zbasnik said. "Anyone can join. I'm learning new stuff in the club every day about the club and about how go cart motors work."
Anyone interested in becoming part of the club can email Spencer Lee at email@example.com or Anthony Palumbo at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The club meets every Thursday at the Airport from 1-4 p.m. MSD
|Go-Karts Are Coming To Somers Golf Center
By: Megan Bard
|Filed Under: Go Kart -
There is a chance that by the Fourth of July holiday travelers along Main Street will hear a faint whir coming from the Somers Golf Center.
The sound will be from new outdoor electric go karts whizzing around a 1,015-foot long concrete track that will be built at the rear of the property behind the existing 18-hole miniature golf course and batting cages.
Tuesday night, the Zoning Commission approved a special permit request submitted by 349 Main Street LLC, owner of the actvity center that also includes a driving range and Sonny's Restaurant.
Prior to voting on the request the commission held a 7-minute long public hearing, just enough time for Timothy Coon of J.R. Russo & Associates LLC, an engineering and surveying company based in East Windsor, to present the proposal and commissioners to ask for public comment - there was none.
The plan has already been approved by the wetlands commission and received a positive recommendation from the planning and conservation commissions, along with the health department official.
"We're excited to make it more of an amuzement center for the local region to enjoy. We want to make it more for the whole family to come out and fly around in these carts with an electric go-kart motor," Jonathan Murray said after the vote; Murray represents the owner.
In addition to the track, a small pit building will be constructed for maintenance and storage associated with the track and the 24 electric go kart (s). The go cart motors used are electric and have a ton more torque than a gas model. Go kart electric motors are inexpensive, quite, and have a lot of power.
The project is within the 100 year flood plain so compensatory storage will be created on the far side of the wetland, as approved by the wetlands commission.
The track will be pitched inward so that any runoff can be collected in a single location and go through a series of filters before being discharged to a wetland at the rear of the site.
|Duo power up for kart race
By: Nicola Weatherall, Sunday Sun
|Filed Under: Go Kart -
TWO North students are on track to build an electric go kart that will reach a hair-raising 100mph. That a lot of power for a go kart electric motor.
What’s more, the duo will become the first British go-karters to compete in one of the world’s biggest racing tournaments.
Engineering students John Wood and Hayley Blythe, from Sunderland, are currently developing the electric go-kart motor and battery for the electric go kart, which will power their way to the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race.
Also known as the Indy 500, it is billed as America’s greatest spectacle in racing and is regarded as one of the most significant motorsport events in the world.
More than 400,000 racing enthusiasts attend the event every year and it is watched on television by millions of viewers across the globe.
This is the first time any vehicle outside the US has been invited to compete in Indianapolis Motor Speedway’s prestigious Electric Vehicle Grand Prix – or evGrandPrix.
This year’s Indy 500 is particularly special as it celebrates its 100th anniversary, but the evGrandPrix is a much more recent addition to the event schedule. (electric go kart)
John and Hayley, who are studying at Sunderland University, have been set the challenge to design, build and race a fast and energy-efficient electric go kart over 100 laps. The go kart electric motors are very quiet but very powerful.
They were invited to compete after a visit to Purdue University in Indiana during a conference with the Society for Motor Manufacturers and Traders.
On race day, it will be Hayley behind the wheel of the electric go kart and she’s determined she can cut it in a man’s sport with her high performance go kart electric motors.
Dave Baglee, project coordinator at Sunderland University, who’ll be joining the students at the event, added: “John and Hayley are excited at the thought of showing off their electric go kart skills. We have a great car with an incredible electric go-kart motor and a strong team spirit, and real potential to compete well and finish in a top position.”
The evGrandPrix will take place on May 7, 2011. MSD
|Electric-kart inventor hopes to inspire more
By: DAVID BRO
|Filed Under: Go Kart -
After President Barack Obama said early in his presidency that we, as a nation, must start building things again, San Clemente real estate broker George Fortin went to work to build an electric go kart from scratch in the garage of his Talega home with a high performance electric go-kart motor.
In November, a year and $4,000 later, he finished the 20-horsepower, zero-emission vehicle he calls the Z-Kart.(electric go kart) It uses six lead-acid batteries and has a range of 20 miles at speeds of 40 to 50 mph, depending on the gearing installed. With a frame built from recycled polyethylene, it weighs about 300 pounds and can be charged from a regular household electrical outlet in about three hours, Fortin said.
Fortin, 55, said he was inspired not only by the words of the president but also a personal conviction to live "greener."
"If I can build this using common tools and stuff from local hardware stores, then think of what someone could build with better resources and an engineering degree," he said.
WATCH A VIDEO FEATURING FORTIN AND THE Z-KART.
His parents learned quickly that no household appliance was safe from their son when he had a screwdriver in his hand. He took apart can openers and hairdryers and even made an electric scooter with the rotisserie motor from his dad's barbecue.
Fortin, who grew up in Diamond Bar, began "engineering" electric go karts when he was about 11, including secretly taking apart his dad's first gasoline lawn mower.
But he didn't get serious until he upgraded an old motorized minibike. He said all the adults in the neighborhood had off-road bikes and would regularly ride to the top of a particularly steep hill. Limited by the small motor on his minibike, he was unable to tag along. But he swapped his bike's 3-horsepower motor for a Briggs & Stratton 8-horsepower model, and soon he was on top of the hill.
"The (bigger) motor was all in pieces when I got it, and when I had it on the bike it was so big, the spark plug came up through the top of the seat. But I made it work," Fortin said. "Sitting on top of that hill ... it was my moment."
Fortin, who has no formal training in design or engineering, has never stopped making things, with dozens of self-propelled vehicles and electric go karts made and pulled apart again – always salvaging the parts to make something better. Trial and error has shown him what works and what doesn't, including gear ratios, chassis design, suspension and steering assemblies.
Fortin says he is driven by curiosity about how things work and making things people can use efficiently and safely.
"I am just a big kid," he said.
His first Z-Kart had spoked bicycle wheels, but when the motor torque and tight steering tests kept tearing the wheels off, he redesigned it using dune-buggy wheels with motorcycle tires, along with other refinements.
"I really want to use my story to support making the garage a breeding ground for new ideas," Fortin said. "Big corporate companies are too bogged down with stuff. The garage is a personal space free from negativity ... and politics, where a person with the passion and an idea can be creative. Apple and Microsoft did it."
Fortin said he has had about 155,000 hits on his YouTube videos featuring the Z-Kart, along with more than 4,000 emails from people inquiring about how to build an electric go kart themselves. He also has been contacted by San Clemente-based chassis maker Swift Engineering to possibly help take the Z-Kart to the next level with higher performance go kart electric motors. MSD
|Go Karts: 7 Advantages of Electric Go Karts Over Gas
By: D Swain
|Filed Under: Go Kart -
Deciding to buy your child a go kart can be a difficult decision to make. If you have already decided to take the plunge, then you may be trying to decide whether gas or electric go karts are the better choice. Electric go karts have a number of advantages over karts powered by gas. This article will share with you those advantages.
Electric go karts are usually much cheaper than their gas counterparts. Karts powered by gas normally start around $400 or $500. You can find a lot of electric go karts that will only cost you a maximum of $200. Go kart electric motors are easy to find. D&D Motor Systems, Inc has plenty.
Go karts that rely on gas for power can be dangerous due to the fact that gasoline is extremely flammable. Most parents wouldn't be too thrilled with having their kids handling gasoline. Even kids can safely handle the batteries required by electric go karts. Also, most electric go karts have some form of electric go kart controller that allows the parent to control the electric go kart speed.
Everyone knows that burning gas releases toxic fumes into the atmosphere. For the environmentally conscious parent, electric go kart motors are the perfect solution. In addition to helping save the Earth, your kid won't be breathing in any poisonous fumes while he's having fun in his new electric go kart.
The engine of gas powered go karts make a lot of noise when running. If you live in a relatively quiet neighborhood, this may cause problems with your neighbors. Electric go kart motors make considerably less noise.
Maintenance costs for go karts powered by gas can add up quickly. You will need a constant supply of fuel. In addition to this, gas engines are more susceptible to breakdowns and oil leaks. With electric go kart motors, you can simply recharge the battery time and time again. Also, electric go karts have much less moving parts, so they are far less likely to break down. An electric go kart motor is very simple to get repaired.
Electric go kart motors usually are more efficient than gas go kart engines. Electric go kart motors easily outperform gas powered karts in handling and performance. Also, electric go karts are virtually impossible to tip over while cutting sharp corners like gas go karts are vulnerable to doing.
Easier to Start
With electric go kart motors, you just turn the key and press the pedal. Go kart electric motors have a ton of immediate torque. MSD
|MOWER EXCHANGE: A new program could help you put a cleaner running lawn mower in your garage this spring
By: Megan Reuther
|Filed Under: Lawn Care -
It's time to trade in the snowblower for the lawn mower, and a new local program could help you put a cleaner running model in your garage.
It may not seem like you use a significant amount of gas mowing your lawn. But, the Environmental Protection Agency says cutting your grass contributes to about 5% of the nation's total air pollution. A program in Polk County is trying to change that with a lawn mower exchange.
All it takes is a push of a button and the pull of a lever for Office Specialist Gloria Walraven to start mowing the grass. She says, "You just clutch it, pitch it in, and away it goes." Walraven took a new Neuton electric lawn motor mower for a test push. She says, "This is very easy. I was really surprised."
The Neuton electric lawn motor mower isn't like most machines in central Iowa garages. Jeremy Becker, an engineer for Polk County's Air Quality Division, says, "It's all electric, low emissions, no gasoline."
He says the electric lawn motor mower is part of Polk County's first electric lawn motor mower exchange. People can bring an old working gas powered mower to Midwest Recovery Center in Bondurant to be recycled. Then, you'll get a coupon from the county to buy a battery powered electric lawn motor mower at a discounted rate. Becker says, "The whole premise is to get the less efficient, more polluting gasoline lawn mowers out of circulation and go to something with a little newer technology and less emissions."
Becker says the Air Quality Division monitors the air you breathe throughout the year and notices a spike in ground level ozone and particulate pollution when the weather turns warm. He says it happens for a variety of reasons, including lawn care equipment. The EPA says that can cause breathing problems, especially for the young, old and people with asthma. He says, "This is something the average person can do to help reduce air pollution levels." ELM (electric lawn motor)
Becker says the electric lawn motor mower exchange will make a modest difference at first. He says, "It's not going to make a big difference the first year. We're only looking to exchange about 30 to 35 lawnmowers." But, he says the program should make a bigger difference in the future. Becker says replacing one mower is equal to taking one car off the road for 10,000 miles. He says the division will track who uses the electric lawn motor mowers, and if the technology makes a difference. He says, "As the program grows from year to year, if we get up to 100 or 200 lawn mowers exchanged, then we'd see a significant reduction."
As for Walraven, she says she wouldn't mind pushing one of these around this summer. She says, "It was very easy to handle."
This is only for Polk County Residents. If you participate in the program, you can choose from two models. One costs $149. The other costs $209, after the discount. A grant from Metro Waste Authority and the county are paying for the program. MSD
|Why Green Lawn Care?
By: Barbara Keer
|Filed Under: Lawn Care -
Have you noticed? Spring has sprung (almost) and lawn care decisions need to be made. Go Green Wilmette has some useful information that may be helpful whether you renew old contracts, find new services, or plunge in and do it yourself.
Gas-Powered Lawn Equipment
Lawn equipment with gas engines generates high levels of carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides, producing up to 5 percent of the nation’s air pollution. Pollutant levels are often higher in metropolitan areas where there is concentrated use of lawn equipment.
One gas mower emits 87 pounds of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, and 54 pounds of other pollutants into the air every year. One mower running for an hour creates the same quantity of pollutants as eight new cars driving 55 mph for an hour according to the Union of Concerned Scientists.
More than 17 million gallons of gas are spilled each year in the refueling of lawn and garden equipment—more oil than was spilled by the Exxon Valdez! In addition, 800 million gallons of gas are burned yearly by Americans mowing their lawns.
Gas-powered lawn equipment, especially gas blowers, used during the hot summer months contributes to ground level ozone when it is the highest, which aggravates respiratory conditions and throws all kinds of noxious substances into the air, according to the EPA. That is why Wilmette passed an ordinance to protect our health forbidding the use of gas-powered leaf blowers from May 15- September 30 on residential property. Be sure to inform your lawn service of that restriction.
Gas leaf blowers are just a part of the problem. If just 20 percent of U.S. homeowners switched to electric lawn motor mowers, 84,000 fewer tons of carbon monoxide would be emitted into the air each year, and the average user would save 73 percent in total energy costs. (www.greenseal.org) Many hobbyists are doing electric lawn mower converion so they are now using electric riding mowers or an electric lawn tractor. Many schools are now beginning to teach classes whereby they do an electric lawn tractor conversion by using an electric lawn motor. The concept is rather straight forward and more info is online on exactly how to complete the job. diy electric lawn mower MSD
Read Entire Article
|Electric Lawn Mowers Beat the Gas Guzzlers at Their Own Game
By: LuAnne Roy
|Filed Under: Lawn Care -
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
calculates that a single gas lawn mower emits the same amount of volatile
organic compounds in an hour as a car driven 350 miles. Multiply that times 54
million—the estimated number of Americans who mow their lawns every
weekend—and it’s a staggering amount of toxic particles entering
the atmosphere—some five percent of the nation’s total air
pollutants. And because lawn mowers are used predominantly in hot months
when ground-level ozone is the highest, they bring added misery to asthma
that’s just the toxins that get into the air. Each year, the EPA says that
homeowners spill 17 million gallons of gasoline when refilling their lawn
products, six million more gallons than the Exxon Valdez spilled into
Prince William Sound in 1989.
The Electric Power Research Institute of Palo
Alto, California, says that replacing one half of the nearly 1.3 million gas mowers
in the U.S. with electric mowers would be the emissions equivalent of taking two
million cars off the road.
Electric mowers are not only better for the
environment (because they create no exhaust emissions and run cleaner), they
also need less maintenance (no spark plugs and belts) and are easier to use (no
pull cord—just turn the key). On top of all that, they’re less
expensive to run. The average electric mower uses the same electricity as an
ordinary toaster, costing just $5 per year. The electrics also create considerably
less noise pollution.
On the downside, electric mowers cost up to
$150 more and are limited to use with smaller lawns; corded mowers are
restricted by the 100-foot cord length and cordless mowers are limited to the
runtime of their charge—30 to 60 minutes, depending on battery size.
Corded mowers also carry the risk of running over the cord, although top models
guide the cord to the side of the handle to prevent that. And cordless mowers
can present an environmental hazard if their lead-acid batteries are not disposed
of at a recycling facility.
According to consumer ratings, Black
& Decker leads the pack. Consumer-search.com reports that
B&D’s corded model, MM 875 ($230), is “maintenance-
free” and has a one-lever height adjustment that’s easy to
maneuver. Its cordless model, CMM 1200 ($400), does a better job than most
corded electric mowers, plus mulches more effectively and cuts more evenly.
Other corded models that fared well are the Craftsmen 37051 ($220), and the
Homelite UT13120 ($200), that reportedly has the widest cutting deck (20 inches)
of all electric mowers, as well as the highest maximum cuttings
cordless models, Consumer Digest rates the Neuton Cordless Mower
($400) higher than B&D, mostly due to its lighter 48-pound weight, its
whisper-like hum and its “reel” mower, which cuts the grass at a
diagonal angle that’s considered healthier for the
Most of the major mower companies make electric mowers,
as do many smaller manufacturers, including Sun-lawn, Neuton, Homelite, Yard
Machines and Worx. The difficulty is finding stores that carry them. Locally,
Home Depot carries one brand—Homelite. Nick Redwood, department
manager of Lowes in Orange, Connecticut, says his store sells a maximum of
four different models. The Black & Deckers are the most popular, but
Redwood says customers rarely ask for electric mowers. He sells only one for
every 20 gas mowers.
Bill Moore, webmaster for EV-world.com, has
owned a Black & Decker CMM1000 for three years and says he had to resort
to the Internet to find an electric mower because there were none on showroom
floors where he lives in Omaha, Nebraska.
He now says
he’d never go back to using a gas mower. “It was tiring,”
he says. “I can’t prove it medically, but the electric doesn’t
produce the same level of fatigue; it’s not spitting out a quart of fuel and
giving off exhaust fumes.” The one drawback, Moore says, is that he
occasionally needs to make an extra pass because the blade of his B&D is
19 inches, compared to the 20- or 21-inch blade of most gas
John Longo of Milford, Connecticut stopped into Lowes
on a recent Saturday to purchase his second electric mower. He says he bought
his first 10 years ago, kept it for seven years, then went back to a gas mower.
“It’s a man thing,” he jokes, “I went for more
But Longo says he couldn’t deal with the
mess and noise. The clincher for both Moore and Longo is the simplicity of use.
“The electric mower is always there, ready to go,” says
LUANNE ROY is the listings editor
of the Fairfield County Weekly. She lives in Seymour,
LSV (Low Speed Vehicle)
|Nemo found near old Camaro factory site
|Filed Under: LSV (Low Speed Vehicle) -
The recent lifting of the low speed vehicle (LSV) ban in Quebec has shone the
light of discovery on another electric vehicle manufacturer
getting ready to go gangbusters. In Ste.-Therese, Quebec, very close to where
the Chevrolet Camaro plant was once located, sits the home of Nemo. Locally designed and
manufactured, their vehicle, the Must HD2 has garnered interest from 50
municipalities within "La Belle
Province" as well as from individuals. Company president, Jacques
Rancourt, says they've sold 15 trucks in the past week and a half since their
legal status changed and now expects to move 500 units this year.
The Must HD2 sells for around $20,000, is built on an aluminum chassis and
can handle a 1,000 lb payload. Being an LSV, it's limited to 25 miles an hour but
has a 70 mile range. Since it's made in the North, it does has a robust heater and
many options ranging from lithium ion batteries to an AM/FM radio with CD
player. We think it's a pretty cool looking truck, seemingly capable of handling a
range of chores and so we wish the makers of this little brute, "Bonne
NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle)
|A Holy Roller
By: Jura Koncius
|Filed Under: NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle) -
The pope who wears
Prada has a new set of chic custom wheels.
Pope Benedict XVI, who
has made headlines with his high-style red designer loafers and his Gucci
shades, is tooling around the grounds of Vatican City in an electric car outfitted
in luxurious Natuzzi Italian white leather. His latest fashion statement was
donated to the pontiff by Global Electric Motorcars (GEM), a subsidiary of
DaimlerChrysler, and Natuzzi.
"It was a very special project and an
honor to be involved in it," said Daniel Tranchini, chief global sales and
marketing officer for Natuzzi, the world's largest manufacturer of leather
upholstery, calling us from the International Furniture Fair in Cologne,
The car, which bears a vague resemblance to a golf cart,
has the papal seal on the front and back and was made for short hops behind the
walls of Vatican City. No word on whether there is a papal putting green out
|Buchanan calls for bipartisan effort to convert nation to "green" energy
By: Domenick Yoney
|Filed Under: NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle) -
Vern Buchanan (R), the Congressman
representing the Sarasota, FL area, is one politician who sees the "green" light.
While visiting with solar and electric car maker, Cruise Car Inc,
whose manufacturing and sales operation is in his district, the lawmaker made a
plea for a national bipartisan effort to make the switch from fossil fuels to more
environmentally-friendly energy sources. Speaking to the company's employees
and assembled media, Buchanan said, "My sense is we've been misled as
Americans in many ways for the last 25 years in terms of our energy and where
we're going to get it. Solar, alternate energy, all that stuff is possible; it'll create
jobs, it'll make a difference."
Proof of that difference was all around
him. While obviously not the transportation solution for everybody, Cruise Car is
doing a booming business. There's a 60 to 90 day waiting list for some of their
vehicles, which can go up to 62 miles on a charge and are powered by the sun,
though they can be plugged in for extra charging if necessary. The company is
doubling its 10 employees this year and will be moving to a new facility (and
doing more hiring) to keep up with an exponential increase in demand. Hopefully,
more of our representatives will open their eyes to the many benefits of a greener
economy and make the changes needed to speed things along.
[Source: Bradenton Herald]
|Phillipine police roll on patrol in a NEV
By: Domenick Yoney
|Filed Under: NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle) -
The price of gas is getting out of hand everywhere. Ok, maybe not
Venezuela, where its cheaper than our bottled water at ¢15 a gallon, but
almost everywhere else, it's expensive. In the Philippines its so costly ($4.50
gallon in a country where, according to the Philippine National Statistics Office, the
average household income is about $4,000 USD a year) that the Philippine
National Police (PNP) has started testing neighborhood electric vehicles (NEV)
with the goal of putting them into regular action.
vehicle can accommodate 4 adults and comes with a police light bar and "Polis"
markings. There are no gears to shift, so operation is simple. With a top speed of
30 km/h (slow) they won't be involved in any high-speed chases but they're still
adequate for routine patrols and providing police visibility. The force is also
considering implementing bicycles.
| How do I tell if my Golf Cart Solenoid is not working?
By: Internet Forum
|Filed Under: Solenoids -
Next to batteries, the most misunderstood part of a gas or electric car is the Golf Cart Solenoid. A Golf Cart Solenoid is nothing more than a switch. Switches are normally mechanically activated devices similar to a light or key switch. These types of switches require manual or mechanical activation. Golf Cart Solenoids are just switches activated by an external electrical input. It does not matter whether its a Club Car Solenoid or an EZ-GO Solenoid, a Golf Cart Solenoids sole purpose is to make and break an electrical circuit on demand. The term "contactor" is also used to describe a Golf Cart Solenoid. A Golf Cart Solenoid has two basic circuits, the Primary and Secondary circuit. In the Primary, or activation circuit, you have two components, the activation wiring and the internal primary coil. When subjected to electric voltage the internal primary coil activates, bringing two contact points together to allow an electric current to pass through the Secondary circuit. The coil requires both the positive and negative potentials for electric voltage to pass through it and activate. Most cars activate the Golf Cart Solenoid with normal battery pack voltage. However, be aware there are some older model cars that use a system of "tapped" voltage and the Golf Cart Solenoids must be connected to a specific voltage. Taps are just different connecting points on the battery pack. The Secondary, or power circuit, is the circuit being activated by the Golf Cart Solenoids coil. This circuit consists of large power contacts inside the Golf Cart solenoid that allow a heavy load of electric current to flow to the motor or starter/generator when activated. Any time you are working with a car's electrical system, be sure you have the correct wiring diagram for the application you are testing! In the accompanying diagram, the connection terminals on the Golf Car Solenoid have been numbered 1 though 4 for ease of identification purposes only.
In the diagram, there are some other items that may or may not be on your car system, a diode and resistor. Not all applications use the diode and resistor, and that is why it is important to determine the year, make, and model of your car.
The diode functions as a buffer to catch voltage spikes in the Primary circuit. The resistor (250 ohms) is used to pre-charge the capacitor bank in the car controller if it uses this system. The resistor will connect to the Secondary circuit's large terminals. Again, use the correct diagram for the system you are working on.
|How do I trouble shoot my solenoid?
By: Internet Forum
|Filed Under: Solenoids -
1) The car will not run.
A) Does the Club Car Solenoid or EZ-GO Solenoid make a "clicking" sound?
If it doesn't, we must first determine if activation voltage is present at the small terminals #1 and #2. Connect a voltmeter across the connections at #1 and #2 and activate the system. To activate the system put the car in the run mode, key switch on, car in forward and the accelerator pedal pushed. If your voltmeter displays the system voltage and the solenoid does not "click", then the solenoid is defective and will need to be replaced.
Make the connection just like this.
B) The Golf Cart Solenoid does not "click" and you do not read system voltage. This tells us that one of the voltage potentials is missing at connection #1 and or #2. To find out which potential is missing, leave the red lead of the voltmeter connected on terminal #2, the positive connection (usually a blue or red wire). However, wire colors may vary. Ensure proper diagnosis by using the correct diagram for the make and year of your car. Place the black lead of the voltmeter to the battery's negative post on the number six battery (the last battery in series from the first positive battery connection to the car). Activate the system as before, if your voltmeter reads system voltage, the positive input is correct. This means the key switch, micro switches and wiring are good and you are missing the negative input. (Club Car Solenoid)
Positive connection at terminal #2.
Continue the diagnosis process by connecting the black negative lead from the voltmeter to terminal #1 and the red lead of the voltmeter to battery #1's positive post (the first positive connection to the car). Activate the system again. If you are not reading system voltage on your voltmeter, you have confirmed that the battery negative is missing. Depending on the system the car is using, the missing negative will need to be traced to its source. Some systems supply the negative from a controller output (or with some Club Car Solenoid, the onboard computer). Most gas cars use the frame as "ground". Electric cars do not use a frame "ground". You can determine the car's ground point by referring to the correct wiring diagram.
Negative connection at terminal #1.
So let's say that we were missing the positive at connection terminal #2. This means either the key switch, micro switch and/or accelerator switch is open or out of adjustment. NOTE: Be aware that some cars use the key circuit as a negative circuit and adjust accordingly as per the correct wiring diagram. You will need to trace voltage to each individual component in that circuit and determine where the voltage is lost.
If your car uses the diode in the solenoid system, make sure you make the proper connections and orientation as the diode is polarity-sensitive! This is different between the Club Car Solenoid and the EZ-GO Solenoid.
Secondary Circuit (power)
1) If the Golf Cart Solenoid does "click" and the car will not run. Disconnect the cable from terminal #4 and lay it aside. Tape the end so it doesn't come into contact with any part of your car. Cable 4 will be the load side of the solenoid that connects directly to the controller/motor circuit. If the car uses a 250-ohm resistor, remove and tape the end of that as well.
2) Place the positive lead of the voltmeter on the vacated #4 terminal. Place the negative lead of the voltmeter to battery #6's negative post. Activate the system. If your voltmeter does not display system voltage, the secondary circuit's contacts are defective and the solenoid will need to be replaced. If you do read system voltage on your voltmeter the problem with your car is somewhere in the controller, motor, wiring/cables, shifter and/or input control, such as an inductive throttle sensor, potentiometer, or v-glide.
3) If the Golf Cart Solenoid does not "click" and the car runs all the time with the key on or off. Connect the voltmeter as per step number two. If you read system voltage without pushing the accelerator pedal and key off the solenoid is defective. This means the secondary contacts are stuck in the "on" position and the solenoid needs replacement.
1) Raise the rear wheels off the ground using the proper support stands BEFORE you begin your Golf Cart Solenoid testing.
2) Disconnect the battery/battery pack when required for testing. If the car is a regenerative system, place the run/tow switch in the tow position before you disconnect the batteries.
3) If you have a proclivity towards being a pyromaniac, make sure you know where the closest fire extinguisher is!
4) Use extreme caution with higher voltage cars as severe burns can occur by accidentally shorting out connections with a hand tool.
5) Golf Cart Solenoids testing should be done in a well-ventilated area and extreme caution used around the batteries as hydrogen gas may be present.
6) Keep all flames and sparks away from the battery compartment and keep battery acid away from your skin and eyes as this can be a irritant.
There you have it! The solenoid is not some complicated mystery. Just think of it as just any other switch you may encounter that it is electrically activated.
Positive connection at terminal 2
Negative connection at terminal 1
Specialty DC Motors
|What Is a Shunt or SEPEX Motor?
By: National Instruments
|Filed Under: Specialty DC Motors -
Electrical Diagram of a Shunt Motor
The shunt motor is different from the series motor in that the field winding is connected in parallel with the armature instead of in series. You should remember from basic electrical theory that a parallel circuit is often referred to as a shunt. Since the field winding is placed in parallel with the armature, it is called a shunt winding and the motor is called a shunt motor. Figure 12-13 shows a diagram of a shunt motor. Notice that the field terminals are marked Fl and F2, and the armature terminals are marked Al andA2. You should notice in this diagram that the shunt field is represented with multiple turns using a thin line.
FIGURE 12-13 Diagram of DC shunt motor. Notice the shunt coil is identified as a coil of fine wire with many turns that is connected in parallel (shunt) with the armature.FIGURE 12-14 Typical DC shunt motor. These motors are available in a variety of sizes. This motor is a 1 hp (approximately 8 in. tall).
The shunt winding is made of small-gauge wire with many turns on the coil. Since the wire is so small, the coil can have thousands of turns and still fit in the slots. The small-gauge wire cannot handle as much current as the heavy-gauge wire in the series field, but since this coil has many more turns of wire, it can still produce a very strong magnetic field. Figure 12-14 shows a picture of a DC shunt motor.
Shunt Motor Operation
A shunt motor has slightly different operating characteristics than a series motor. Since the shunt field coil is made of fine wire, it cannot produce the large current for starting like the series field. This means that the shunt motor has very low starting torque, which requires that the shaft load be rather small.
When voltage is applied to the motor, the high resistance of the shunt coil keeps the overall current flow low. The armature for the shunt motor is similar to the series motor and it will draw current to produce a magnetic field strong enough to cause the armature shaft and load to start turning. Like the series motor, when the armature begins to turn, it will produce back EMF. The back EMF will cause the current in the armature to begin to diminish to a very small level. The amount of current the armature will draw is directly related to the size of the load when the motor reaches full speed. Since the load is generally small, the armature current will be small. When the motor reaches full rpm, its speed will remain fairly constant.
Controlling the Speed
When the shunt motor reaches full rpm, its speed will remain fairly constant. The reason the speed remains constant is due to the load characteristics of the armature and shunt coil. You should remember that the speed of a series motor could not be controlled since it was totally dependent on the size of the load in comparison to the size of the motor. If the load was very large for the motor size, the speed of the armature would be very slow. If the load was light compared to the motor, the armature shaft speed would be much faster, and if no load was present on the shaft, the motor could run away.
The shunt motor's speed can be controlled. The ability of the motor to maintain a set rpm at high speed when the load changes is due to the characteristic of the shunt field and armature. Since the armature begins to produce back EMF as soon as it starts to rotate, it will use the back EMF to maintain its rpm at high speed. If the load increases slightly and causes the armature shaft to slow down, less back EMF will be produced. This will allow the difference between the back EMF and applied voltage to become larger, which will cause more current to flow. The extra current provides the motor with the extra torque required to regain its rpm when this load is increased slightly.
The shunt motor's speed can be varied in two different ways. These include varying the amount of current supplied to the shunt field and controlling the amount of current supplied to the armature. Controlling the current to the shunt field allows the rpm to be changed 10-20% when the motor is at full rpm.
This type of speed control regulation is accomplished by slightly increasing or decreasing the voltage applied to the field. The armature continues to have full voltage applied to it while the current to the shunt field is regulated by a rheostat that is connected in series with the shunt field. When the shunt field's current is decreased, the motor's rpm will increase slightly. When the shunt field's current is reduced, the armature must rotate faster to produce the same amount of back EMF to keep the load turning. If the shunt field current is increased slightly, the armature can rotate at a slower rpm and maintain the amount of back EMF to produce the armature current to drive the load. The field current can be adjusted with a field rheostat or an SCR current control.
The shunt motor's rpm can also be controlled by regulating the voltage that is applied to the motor armature. This means that if the motor is operated on less voltage than is shown on its data plate rating, it will run at less than full rpm. You must remember that the shunt motor's efficiency will drop off drastically when it is operated below its rated voltage. The motor will tend to overheat when it is operated below full voltage, so motor ventilation must be provided. You should also be aware that the motor's torque is reduced when it is operated below the full voltage level.
Since the armature draws more current than the shunt field, the control resistors were much larger than those used for the field rheostat. During the 1950s and 1960s SCRs were used for this type of current control. The SCR was able to control the armature current since it was capable of controlling several hundred amperes. In Chapter 11 we provided an in-depth explanation of the DC motor drive.
The armature's torque increases as the motor gains speed due to the fact that the shunt motor's torque is directly proportional to the armature current. When the motor is starting and speed is very low, the motor has very little torque. After the motor reaches full rpm, its torque is at its fullest potential. In fact, if the shunt field current is reduced slightly when the motor is at full rpm, the rpm will increase slightly and the motor's torque will also in-crease slightly. This type of automatic control makes the shunt motor a good choice for applications where constant speed is required, even though the torque will vary slightly due to changes in the load. Figure 12-15 shows the torque/speed curve for the shunt motor. From this diagram you can see that the speed of the shunt motor stays fairly constant throughout its load range and drops slightly when it is drawing the largest current.
FIGURE 12-15 A curve that shows the armature current versus the armature speed for a shunt motor. Notice that the speed of a shunt motor is nearly constant.
FIGURE 12-16 Diagram of a shunt motor connected to a reversing motor starter. Notice that the shunt field is connected across the armature and it is not reversed when the armature is reversed.
Reversing the Rotation
The direction of rotation of a DC shunt motor can be reversed by changing the polarity of either the armature coil or the field coil. In this application the armature coil is usually changed, as was the case with the series motor. Figure 12-16 shows the electrical diagram of a DC shunt motor connected to a forward and reversing motor starter. You should notice that the Fl and F2 terminals of the shunt field are connected directly to the power supply, and the Al and A2 terminals of the armature winding are connected to the reversing starter.
When the FMS is energized, its contacts connect the Al lead to the positive power supply terminal and the A2 lead to the negative power supply terminal. The Fl motor lead is connected directly to the positive terminal of the power supply and the F2 lead is connected to the negative terminal. When the motor is wired in this configuration, it will begin to run in the forward direction.
When the RMS is energized, its contacts reverse the armature wires so that the Al lead is connected to the negative power supply terminal and the A2 lead is connected to the positive power supply terminal. The field leads are connected directly to the power supply, so their polarity is not changed. Since the field's polarity has remained the same and the armature's polarity has reversed, the motor will begin to rotate in the reverse direction. The control part of the diagram shows that when the FMS coil is energized, the RMS coil is locked out.
Installing a Shunt Motor
A shunt motor can be installed easily. The motor is generally used in belt-drive applications. This means that the installation procedure should be broken into two sections, which include the mechanical installation of the motor and its load, and the installation of electrical wiring and controls.
When the mechanical part of the installation is completed, the alignment of the motor shaft and the load shaft should be checked. If the alignment is not true, the load will cause an undue stress on the armature bearing and there is the possibility of the load vibrating and causing damage to it and the motor. After the alignment is checked, the tension on the belt should also be tested. As a rule of thumb, you should have about V2 to 1/4 inch of play in the belt when it is properly tensioned.
Several tension measurement devices are available to determine when a belt is tensioned properly. The belt tension can also be compared to the amount of current the motor draws. The motor must have its electrical installation completed to use this method.
The motor should be started, and if it is drawing too much current, the belt should be loosened slightly but not enough to allow the load to slip. If the belt is slipping, it can be tightened to the point where the motor is able to start successfully and not draw current over its rating.
The electrical installation can be completed before, after, or during the mechanical installation. The first step in this procedure is to locate the field and armature leads in the motor and prepare them for field connections. If the motor is connected to magnetic or manual across the line starter, the Fl field coil wire can be connected to the Al armature lead and an interconnecting wire, which will be used to connect these leads to the Tl terminal on the motor starter. The F2 lead can be connected to the A2 lead and a second wire, which will connect these leads to the T2 motor starter terminal.
When these connections are completed, field and armature leads should be replaced back into the motor and the field wiring cover or motor access plate should be replaced. Next the DC power supply's positive and negative leads should be connected to the motor starter's LI and L2 terminals, respectively.
After all of the load wires are connected, any pilot devices or control circuitry should be installed and connected. The control circuit should be tested with the load voltage disconnected from the motor. If the control circuit uses the same power source as the motor, the load circuit can be isolated so the motor will not try to start by disconnecting the wire at terminal L2 on the motor starter. Operate the control circuit several times to ensure that it is wired correctly and operating properly. After you have tested the control circuit, the lead can be replaced to the L2 terminal of the motor starter and the motor can be started and tested for proper operation. Be sure to check the motor's voltage and current while it is under load to ensure that it is operating correctly. It is also important to check the motor's temperature periodically until you are satisfied the motor is operating correctly.
If the motor is connected to a reversing starter or reduced-voltage starting circuit, their operation should also be tested. You may need to read the material in Section 15.3.6 to fully understand the operation of these methods of starting the motor using reduced-voltage methods. If the motor is not operating correctly or develops a fault, a troubleshooting procedure should be used to test the motor and locate the problem.
When a DC shunt motor develops a fault, you must be able to locate the problem quickly and return the motor to service or have it replaced. The most likely problems to occur with the shunt motor include loss of supply voltage or an open in either the shunt winding or the armature winding. Other problems may arise that cause the motor to run abnormally hot even though it continues to drive the load. The motor will show different symptoms for each of these problems, which will make the troubleshooting procedure easier.
When you are called to troubleshoot the shunt motor, it is important to determine if the problem occurs while the motor is running or when it is trying to start. If the motor will not start, you should listen to see if the motor is humming and trying to start. When the supply voltage has been interrupted due to a blown fuse or a de-energized control circuit, the motor will not be able to draw any current and it will be silent when you try to start it. You can also determine that the supply voltage has been lost by measuring it with a voltmeter at the starter's LI and L2 terminals. If no voltage is present at the load terminals, you should check for voltage at the starter's Tl and T2 terminals. If voltage is present here but not at the load terminals, it indicates that the motor starter is de-energized or defective. If no voltage is present at the Tl and T2 terminals, it indicates that supply voltage has been lost prior to the motor starter. You will need to check the supply fuses and the rest of the supply circuit to locate the fault.
If the motor tries to start and hums loudly, it indicates that the supply voltage is present. The problem in this case is probably due to an open field winding or armature winding. It could also be caused by the supply voltage being too low.
The most likely problem will be an open in the field winding since it is made from small-gauge wire. The open can occur if the field winding draws too much current or develops a short circuit between the insulation in the coils. The best way to test the field is to remove supply voltage to the motor by opening the disconnect or de-energizing the motor starter. Be sure to use a lockout when you are working on the motor after the disconnect has been opened. The lockout is a device that is placed on the handle of the disconnect after the handle is placed in the off position, and it allows a padlock to be placed around it so it cannot be removed until the technician has completed the work on the circuit. If lockout has extra holes, additional padlocks can be placed on it by other technicians who are also working on this system. This ensures that the power cannot be returned to the system until all technicians have removed their padlocks. The lockout will be explained in detail in the chapter on motor controls later in this text.
After power has been removed, the field terminals should be isolated from the armature coil. This can be accomplished by disconnecting one set of leads where the field and armature are connected together. Remember that the field and armature are connected in parallel and if they are not isolated, your continuity test will show a completed circuit even if one of the two windings has an open.
When you have the field coil isolated from the armature coil, you can proceed with the continuity test. Be sure to use the R X 1k or R X 10k setting on the ohmmeter because the resistance in the field coil will be very high since the field coil may be wound from several thousand feet of wire. If the field winding test indicates the field winding is good, you should continue the procedure and test the armature winding for continuity.
The armature winding test may show that an open has developed from the coil burning open or from a problem with the brushes. Since the brushes may be part of the fault, they should be visually inspected and replaced if they are worn or not seating properly. If the commutator is also damaged, the armature should be removed, so the commutator can be turned down on a lathe.
If either the field winding or the armature winding has developed an open circuit, the motor will have to be removed and replaced. In some larger motors it will be possible to change the armature by itself rather than remove and replace the entire motor. If the motor operates but draws excessive current or heats up, the motor should be tested for loose or shorting coils. Field coils may tend to come loose and cause the motor to vibrate and overheat, or the armature coils may come loose from their slots and cause problems. If the motor continues to overheat or operate roughly, the motor should be removed and sent to a motor rebuilding shop so that a more in-depth test may be performed to find the problem before the motor is permanently damaged by the heat.
|What Are Series DC Motors?
By: National Instruments
|Filed Under: Specialty DC Motors -
Series Motor Diagram
The series motor provides high starting torque and is able to move very large shaft loads when it is first energized. Figure 12-10 shows the wiring diagram of a series motor. From the diagram you can see that the field winding in this motor is wired in series with the armature winding. This is the attribute that gives the series motor its name.
Since the series field winding is connected in series with the armature, it will carry the same amount of current that passes through the armature. For this reason the field is made from heavy-gauge wire that is large enough to carry the load. Since the wire gauge is so large, the winding will have only a few turns of wire. In some larger DC motors, the field winding is made from copper bar stock rather than the conventional round wire used for power distribution. The square or rectangular shape of the copper bar stock makes it fit more easily around the field pole pieces. It can also radiate more easily the heat that has built up in the winding due to the large amount of current being carried.
FIGURE 12-10 Electrical diagram of series motor. Notice that the series field is identified as S1 and S2.
The amount of current that passes through the winding determines the amount of torque the motor shaft can produce. Since the series field is made of large conductors, it can carry large amounts of current and produce large torques. For example, the starter motor that is used to start an automobile's engine is a series motor and it may draw up to 500 A when it is turning the engine's crankshaft on a cold morning. Series motors used to power hoists or cranes may draw currents of thousands of amperes during operation.
The series motor can safely handle large currents since the motor does not operate for an extended period. In most applications the motor will operate for only a few seconds while this large current is present. Think about how long the starter motor on the automobile must operate to get the engine to start. This period is similar to that of industrial series motors.
Series Motor Operation
Operation of the series motor is easy to understand. In Fig. 12-10 you can see that the field winding is connected in series with the armature winding. This means that power will be applied to one end of the series field winding and to one end of the armature winding (connected at the brush).
When voltage is applied, current begins to flow from negative power supply terminals through the series winding and armature winding. The armature is not rotating when voltage is first applied, and the only resistance in this circuit will be provided by the large conductors used in the armature and field windings. Since these conductors are so large, they will have a small amount of resistance. This causes the motor to draw a large amount of current from the power supply. When the large current begins to flow through the field and armature windings, it causes a strong magnetic field to be built. Since the current is so large, it will cause the coils to reach saturation, which will produce the strongest magnetic field possible.
Producing Back EMF
The strength of these magnetic fields provides the armature shafts with the greatest amount of torque possible. The large torque causes the armature to begin to spin with the maximum amount of power. When the armature begins to rotate, it begins to produce voltage. This concept is difficult for some students to understand since the armature is part of the motor at this time.
You should remember from the basic theories of magnetism that anytime a magnetic field passes a coil of wire, a current will be produced. The stronger the magnetic field is or the faster the coil passes the flux lines, the more current will be generated. When the armature begins to rotate, it will produce a voltage that is of opposite polarity to that of the power supply. This voltage is called back voltage, back EMF (electromotive force), or counter EMF. The overall effect of this voltage is that it will be subtracted from the supply voltage so that the motor windings will see a smaller voltage potential.
When Ohm's law is applied to this circuit, you will see that when the voltage is slightly reduced, the current will also be reduced slightly. This means that the series motor will see less current as its speed is increased. The reduced current will mean that the motor will continue to lose torque as the motor speed increases. Since the load is moving when the armature begins to pick up speed, the application will require less torque to keep the load moving. This works to the motor's advantage by automatically reducing the motor current as soon as the load begins to move. It also allows the motor to operate with less heat buildup.
This condition can cause problems if the series motor ever loses its load. The load could be lost when a shaft breaks or if a drive pin is sheared. When this occurs, the load current is allowed to fall to a minimum, which reduces the amount of back EMF that the armature is producing. Since the armature is not producing a sufficient amount of back EMF and the load is no longer causing a drag on the shaft, the armature will begin to rotate faster and faster. It will continue to increase rotational speed until it is operating at a very high speed. When the armature is operating at high speed, the heavy armature windings will be pulled out of their slots by centrifugal force. When the windings are pulled loose, they will catch on a field winding pole piece and the motor will be severely damaged. This condition is called runaway and you can see why a DC series motor must have some type of runaway protection. A centrifugal switch can be connected to the motor to de-energize the motor starter coil if the rpm exceeds the set amount. Other sensors can be used to de-energize the circuit if the motor's current drops while full voltage is applied to the motor. The most important part to remember about a series motor is that it is difficult to control its speed by external means because its rpm is determined by the size of its load. (In some smaller series motors, the speed can be controlled by placing a rheostat in series with the supply voltage to provide some amount of change in resistance to control the voltage to the motor.)
Figure 12-11 shows the relationship between series motor speed and armature current. From this curve you can see that when current is low (at the top left), the motor speed is maximum, and when current increases, the motor speed slows down (bottom right). You can also see from this curve that a DC motor will run away if the load current is reduced to zero. (It should be noted that in larger series machines used in industry, the amount of friction losses will limit the highest speed somewhat.)
FIGURE 12-11 The relationship between series motor speed and the armature current.
Reversing the Rotation
The direction of rotation of a series motor can be changed by changing the polarity of either the armature or field winding. It is important to remember that if you simply changed the polarity of the applied voltage, you would be changing the polarity of both field and armature windings and the motor's rotation would remain the same.
FIGURE 12-12 DC series motor connected to forward and reverse motor starter.
Since only one of the windings needs to be reversed, the armature winding is typically used because its terminals are readily accessible at the brush rigging. Remember that the armature receives its current through the brushes, so that if their polarity is changed, the armature's polarity will also be changed. A reversing motor starter is used to change wiring to cause the direction of the motor's rotation to change by changing the polarity of the armature windings. Figure 12-12 shows a DC series motor that is connected to a re-versing motor starter. In this diagram the armature's terminals are marked Al and A2 and the field terminals are marked Sl and S2.
When the forward motor starter is energized, the top contact identified as F closes so the Al terminal is connected to the positive terminal of the power supply and the bottom F contact closes and connects terminals A2 and Sl. Terminal S2 is connected to the negative terminal of the power supply. When the reverse motor starter is energized, terminals Al and A2 are reversed. A2 is now connected to the positive terminal. Notice that S2 remains connected to the negative terminal of the power supply terminal. This ensures that only the armature's polarity has been changed and the motor will begin to rotate in the opposite direction.
You will also notice the normally closed (NC) set of R contacts connected in series with the forward push button, and the NC set of F contacts connected in series with the reverse push button. These contacts provide an interlock that prevents the motor from being changed from forward to reverse direction without stopping the motor. The circuit can be explained as follows: when the forward push button is depressed, current will flow from the stop push button through the NC R interlock contacts, and through the forward push button to the forward motor starter (FMS) coil. When the FMS coil is energized, it will open its NC contacts that are connected in series with the reverse push button. This means that if someone depresses the reverse push button, current could not flow to the reverse motor starter (RMS) coil. If the person depressing the push buttons wants to reverse the direction of the rotation of the motor, he or she will need to depress the stop push button first to de-energize the FMS coil, which will allow the NC F contacts to return to their NC position. You can see that when the RMS coil is energized, its NC R contacts that are connected in series with the forward push button will open and prevent the current flow to the FMS coil if the forward push button is depressed. You will see a number of other ways to control the FMS and RMS starter in later discussions and in the chapter on motor controls.
Installing and Troubleshooting
Since a series motor has only two leads brought out of the motor for installation wiring, this wiring can be accomplished rather easily. If the motor is wired to operate in only one direction, the motor terminals can be connected to a manual or magnetic starter. If the motor's rotation is required to be reversed periodically, it should be connected to a reversing starter.
Most DC series motors are used in direct-drive applications. This means that the load is connected directly to the armature's shaft. This type of load is generally used to get the most torque converted. Belt-drive applications are not recommended since a broken belt would allow the motor to run away. After the motor has been installed, a test run should be used to check it out. If any problems occur, the troubleshooting procedures should be used.
The most likely problem that will occur with the series motor is that it will develop an open in one of its windings or between the brushes and the commutator. Since the coils in a series motor are connected in series, each coil must be functioning properly or the motor will not draw any current. When this occurs, the motor cannot build a magnetic field and the armature will not turn. Another problem that is likely to occur with the motor circuit is that circuit voltage will be lost due to a blown fuse or circuit breaker. The motor will respond similarly in both of these conditions.
The best way to test a series motor is with a voltmeter. The first test should be for applied voltage at the motor terminals. Since the motor terminals are usually connected to a motor starter, the test leads can be placed on these terminals. If the meter shows that full voltage is applied, the problem will be in the motor. If it shows that no voltage is present, you should test the supply voltage and the control circuit to ensure that the motor starter is closed. If the motor starter has a visual indicator, be sure to check to see that the starter's contacts are closed. If the overloads have tripped, you can assume that they have sensed a problem with the motor or its load. When you reset the overloads, the motor will probably start again but remember to test the motor thoroughly for problems that would cause an overcurrent situation.
If the voltage test indicates that the motor has full applied voltage to its terminals but the motor is not operating, you can assume that you have an open in one of the windings or between the brushes and the armature and continue testing. Each of these sections should be disconnected from each other and voltage should be removed so that they can be tested with an ohmmeter for an open. The series field coils can be tested by putting the ohmmeter leads on terminals Sl and S2. If the meter indicates that an open exists, the motor will need to be removed and sent to be rewound or replaced. If the meter indicates that the field coil has continuity, you should continue the procedure by testing the armature.
The armature can also be tested with an ohmmeter by placing the leads on the terminals marked Al and A2. If the meter shows continuity, rotate the armature shaft slightly to look for bad spots where the commutator may have an open or the brushes may not be seated properly. If the armature test indicates that an open exists, you should continue the test by visually inspecting the brushes and commutator. You may also have an open in the armature coils. The armature must be removed from the motor frame to be tested further. When you have located the problem, you should remember that the commutator can be removed from the motor while the motor remains in place and it can be turned down on a lathe. When the commutator is replaced in the motor, new brushes can be installed and the motor will be ready for use.
It is possible that the motor will develop a problem but still run. This type of problem usually involves the motor overheating or not being able to pull its rated load. This type of problem is different from an open circuit because the motor is drawing current and trying to run. Since the motor is drawing current, you must assume that there is not an open circuit. It is still possible to have brush problems that would require the brushes to be re-seated or replaced. Other conditions that will cause the motor to overheat include loose or damaged field and armature coils. The motor will also overheat if the armature shaft bearing is in need of lubrication or is damaged. The bearing will seize on the shaft and cause the motor to build up friction and overheat.
If either of these conditions occurs, the motor may be fixed on site or be removed for extensive repairs. When the motor is restarted after repairs have been made, it is important to monitor the current usage and heat buildup. Remember that the motor will draw DC current so that an AC clamp-on ammeter will not be useful for measuring the DC current. You will need to use an ammeter that is specially designed for very large DC currents. It is also important to remember that the motor can draw very high locked-rotor current when it is starting, so the ammeter should be capable of measuring currents up to 1000 A. After the motor has completed its test run successfully, it can be put back into operation for normal duty. Anytime the motor is suspected of faulty operation, the troubleshooting procedure should be rechecked.
DC Series Motor Used as a Universal Motor
The series motor is used in a wide variety of power tools such as electric hand drills, saws, and power screwdrivers. In most of these cases, the power source for the motor is AC voltage. The DC series motor will operate on AC voltage. If the motor is used in a hand drill that needs variable-speed control, a field rheostat or other type of current control is used to control the speed of the motor. In some newer tools, the current control uses solid-state components to control the speed of the motor. You will notice that the motors used for these types of power tools have brushes and a commutator, and these are the main parts of the motor to wear out. You can use the same theory of operation provided for the DC motor to troubleshoot these types of motors.
|How Does An Electric DC Motor Work?
By: National Instruments
|Filed Under: Specialty DC Motors -
DC Motor Overview
The electric DC motor has two basic parts: the rotating part that is called the armature, and the stationary part that includes coils of wire called the field coils. The stationary part of the electric dc motor is also called the stator.Figure 12-1 shows a picture of a typical DC motor, Fig. 12-2 shows a picture of an electric DC motor armature, and Fig. 12-3 shows a picture of a typical electric dc motor stator. From the picture in Fig. 12-2 you can see the armature is made of coils of wire wrapped around the core, and the core has an extended shaft that rotates on bearings. You should also notice that the ends of each coil of wire on the armature are terminated at one end of the armature. The termination points are called the commutator, and this is where the brushes make electrical contact to bring electrical current from the stationary part to the rotating part of the electric dc motor.
The picture in Fig. 12-3 shows the location of the coils that are mounted inside the stator. These coils will be referred to as field coils in future discussions about the electric dc motor and they may be connected in series or parallel with each other to create changes of torque in the electric dc motor. You will find the size of wire in these coils and the number of turns of wire in the coil will depend on the effect that is trying to be achieved.
FIGURE 12-1 : A typical electric DC motor.FIGURE 12-2 : The armature (rotor) of an electric DC motor has coils of wire wrapped around its core. The ends of each coil are terminated at commutator segments located on the left end of the shaft. The brushes make contact on the commutator to provide current for the armature.FIGURE 12-3 : The stationary part of a electric DC motor has the field coils mounted in it.
Magnetic Diagram of a DC Motor
It will be easier to understand the operation of the electric DC motor from a basic diagram that shows the magnetic interaction between the rotating armature and the stationary field's coils. Figure 12-4 shows three diagrams that explain the electric DC motor 's operation in terms of the magnetic interaction. In Fig. 12-4a you can see that a bar magnet has been mounted on a shaft so that it can spin. The field winding is one long coil of wire that has been separated into two sections. The top section is connected to the positive pole of the battery and the bottom section is connected to the negative pole of the battery. It is important to understand that the battery represents a source of voltage for this winding. In the actual industrial-type motor this voltage will come from the DC voltage source for the motor. The current flow in this direction makes the top coil the north pole of the magnet and the bottom coil the south pole of the magnet. Typical electric dc motor voltages are as follows: 24 volt dc motors, 24 v dc motor, 36 v dc motor, 12 volt dc motor, and 72 volt electric motor.
The bar magnet represents the armature and the coil of wire represents the field. The arrow shows the direction of the armature's rotation. Notice that the arrow shows the armature starting to rotate in the clockwise direction. The north pole of the field coil is repelling the north pole of the armature, and the south pole of the field coil is repelling the south pole of the armature.
FIGURE 12-4 (a) :
Magnetic diagram that explains the operation of an electric DC motor
. The rotating magnet moves clockwise because like poles repel. (b) The rotating magnet is being attracted because the poles are unlike. (c) The rotating magnet is now shown as the armature coil, and its polarity is determined by the brushes and commutator segments.
As the armature begins to move, the north pole of the armature comes closer to the south pole of the field, and the south pole of the armature is coming closer to the north pole of the field. As the two unlike poles near each other, they begin to attract. This attraction becomes stronger until the armature's north pole moves directly in line with the field's south pole, and its south pole moves directly in line with the field's north pole (Fig. 12-4b).
When the opposite poles are at their strongest attraction, the armature will be "locked up" and will resist further attempts to continue spinning. For the armature to continue its rotation, the armature's polarity must be switched. Since the armature in this diagram is a permanent magnet, you can see that it would lock up during the first rotation and not work. If the armature is an electromagnet, its polarity can be changed by changing the direction of current flow through it. For this reason the armature must be changed to a coil (electromagnet) and a set of commutator segments must be added to provide a means of making contact between the rotating member and the stationary member. One commutator segment is provided for each terminal of the magnetic coil. Since this armature has only one coil, it will have only two terminals, so the commutator has two segments.
Since the armature is now a coil of wire, it will need DC current flowing through it to become magnetized. This presents another problem; since the armature will be rotating, the DC voltage wires cannot be connected directly to the armature coil. A stationary set of carbon brushes is used to make contact to the rotating armature. The brushes ride on the commutator segments to make contact so that current will flow through the armature coil.
In Fig. 12-4c you can see that the electric DC motor voltage is applied to the field and to the brushes. Since negative electric DC motor voltage is connected to one of the brushes, the commutator segment the negative brush rides on will also be negative. The armature's magnetic field causes the armature to begin to rotate. This time when the armature gets to the point where it becomes locked up with the magnetic field, the negative brush begins to touch the end of the armature coil that was previously positive and the positive brush begins to touch the end of the armature coil that was negative. This action switches the direction of current flow through the armature, which also switches the polarity of the armature coil's magnetic field at just the right time so that the repelling and attracting continues. The armature continues to switch its magnetic polarity twice during each rotation, which causes it to continually be attracted and repelled with the field poles.
This is a simple two-pole electric DC motor that is used primarily for instructional purposes. Since the motor has only two poles, the electric DC motor will operate rather roughly and not provide too much torque. Additional field poles and armature poles must be added to the electric DC motor for it to become useful for industry. (24 volt dc motors, 24 v dc motor, 36 v dc motor, 12 volt dc motor, and 72 volt electric motor) MSD
|Basic Wiring Diagram Information
By: By Nacie Carson, eHow Contributor
|Filed Under: Wire Kits -
About Electric Wiring Diagrams
A golf cart battery wiring diagram is a visual representation of the golf cart electrical circuit, showing the location of the power sources, golf cart cables, connection points and signaling mechanisms. It uses a standardized symbol and notation system to represent the main pieces of a golf cart battery wiring circuit, and these conventions are internationally recognized. After the golf cart battery wiring circuit has been created, electric golf cart cable wiring diagrams are most commonly used as a troubleshooting reference if the golf cart battery wiring circuit fails. Have a question? Get an answer from Online Tech Support now!
An electric golf cart battery wiring diagram includes information on all the essential parts of a golf cart cable circuit, including resistors, capacitors and inductors. A resistor is a component that controls the amount of electricity that runs through the circuit by opposing the electric current. It is indicated on the electric wiring diagram as a zigzag line. The capacitor stores energy by holding it between two conductors and is used to charge the circuit. It is described in the electric wiring diagram as two parallel lines. Like capacitors, inductors also store energy, but store it instead in a magnetic field when electricity is moved through it. They are denoted in electric golf cart battery wiring diagrams as a straight line with several bumps in it.
Depending on the complexity of the electric golf cart battery wiring diagram, these circuit components (Golf Car Cable) may be uniquely labeled in addition to their symbols. For instance, if there are two capacitors used in the circuit, they will be listed on the wiring diagram as C1 and C2, short hand for Capacitor 1 and Capacitor 2. The numbering of unique components is based on their location in relevance to the main power source, which is considered the starting point of the circuit. The parts of the circuit are linked together in the diagram through connection indicators, also known as golf cart cables. Golf cart cables are indicated on the diagram as simple straight lines.
The drawing of an electric golf cart battery wiring diagram is one of the first steps in the creation of the actual circuit. After the golf cart battery wiring diagram is complete, it is used to place the various components.
An electric golf cart battery wiring diagram does not show the physical orientation of the components, merely how they connect together. Diagrams that show the actual location of all the golf cart battery wiring parts, like a golf cart cable, are called layout designs or physical designs.
Reading electric golf cart battery wiring diagrams can at times be a challenge. Diagrams are meant to follow the flow of power from energy source through the golf cart cables to output mechanism, however when the circuits are very complex this is not always easy. There is no universal standard as to how they should be organized on a page, though commonly they are drawn with intent to be read from left to right and top to bottom. Larger wiring diagrams, for skyscrapers and sizable compounds, do not fit on a single page and can require cross referencing among many pages to follow the electrical flow.
Read more: About Electric Wiring Diagrams | eHow http://www.ehow.com/about_4672955_electric-wiring-diagrams.html#ixzz2UginBkCG
MSD (Golf Car Cable)